Technical Reference Library - Catalog

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  1.    Tsai, P.; Hansen, E.; Lee, K.; Yee, D., Tucker, D.; Hoenicke, R. (San Francisco Estuary Institute) "Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Metals in the San Francisco Bay Area," WEFTEC 2001 Conference Proceedings, October 2001.

    Conducted measurements of atmospheric deposition of metals, including copper, in the San Francisco Bay area. Three locations were monitored, all near San Francisco Bay and all away from roads and other local sources of metals emissions. Used results to estimate the dry and wet atmospheric deposition of metals directly onto the surface of San Francisco Bay. Available on the Internet: www.sfei.org/rmp/reports/air_dep/tracemetals/TM_WEFTEC.pdf

    air, bay, deposition, copper-general
  2.    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds and Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Frequently Asked Questions About Atmospheric Deposition: A Handbook for Watershed Managers, EPA-453/R-01-009, September 2001

    Describes methods to measure atmospheric deposition of water pollutants in a watershed. Explains how to evaluate the importance of the measured deposition. Provides an overview of atmospheric deposition models, measurement techniques, and costs. Available on the Internet: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/gr8water/handbook/

    air, watershed, deposition, model-air
  3.    Stolzenback, K. D.; Lu, R.; Xiong, C.; Friedlander, S.; Turco, R.; Schiff, K.; Tiefenthaler, L. Measuring and Modeling of Atmospheric Deposition on Santa Monica Bay and the Santa Monica Bay Watershed; Final Report to the Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, prepared by the Institute for the Environment at UCLA and the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, September 2001

    Conducted measurements of atmospheric deposition of metals, including copper, in the Los Angeles area. Emissions were modeled using emissions inventory data (which do not include brakes as a source) to estimate sources. Found that most metals deposition was dry deposition, and that this deposition is a major source of pollutant releases to Santa Monica Bay. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.sccwrp.org/pub/download/PDFs/smb_atmospheric_deposition.pdf

    air, bay, deposition, copper-general, model-air
  4.    Woodward-Clyde Consultants, San Jose Street Sweeping Equipment Evaluation, prepared for the City of San Jose, October 28, 1994

    Evaluated the ability of various types of street sweepers to collect metals (including copper) from urban streets. Looked at the particle sizes collected by the street sweepers, finding that the copper concentration increased as the particle size decreased.Very little mass of very fine particles (75 microns) was collected by any of the tested machines.

    sediments-road, copper-road, particle size distribution
  5.    Tiefenthaler, L. L.; Schiff, K. C.; Bay, S. M. Characteristics of Parking Lot Runoff Produced by Simulated Rainfall, Appendix F of the City of Long Beach Storm Water Monitoring Report 2000-2001, prepared by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, July 2001

    Used simulated rainfall conditions to conduct controlled measurements of metals (including copper) in parking lot runoff. Found copper, lead, and zinc primarily in the dissolved form.Street sweeping did not reduce metals concentrations in runoff. Copper concentrations did not differ between high-use and low-use parking lot areas, but did increase with time between simulated rainfall events. All water samples were toxic to aquatic indicator species. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.sccwrp.org/pub/download/PDFs/characteristics_of_parkinglot_runoff.pdf

    sediments-road, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  6.    Khan, O. U.; Shawley, G. W.; Chen, C. L.; Chen, C. W. Castro Valley Water Quality Modeling: Calibration and Verification, prepared by Systech Engineering Inc. and the Alameda County Flood Control & Water Conservation District, July 1996

    Documents the calibration and verification of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for the Castro Valley, California watershed. The calibration and verification looked at hydrology, total suspended solids, copper, and lead. This model, which simulates storm water runoff flows and pollutant transport in the Castro Valley watershed, has become known as Alameda-SWMM.May be ordered from the Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program; for information see www.cleanwaterprogram.com/publications_libraryResources.htm#reports

    watershed, transport, copper-general, model-water, Castro Valley
  7.    Khan, O. U.; Chen, C. L.; Chen, C. W. Castro Valley Water Quality Modeling:Development and Application of Alameda-SWMM, prepared by Systech Engineering Inc. and the Alameda County Flood Control & Water Conservation District, January 1999

    The previously calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) for the Castro Valley, California watershed was modified to improve modeling accuracy for the study watershed. The modified model was again calibrated and verified, using hydrology, total suspended, solids, lead, and copper. Modifications to the model's pollutant build-up and wash-off functions were made to allow use of the model to estimate pollutant transport from specific sources, including vehicle pollutant releases, fertilizer and pesticide use.

    watershed, transport, copper-general, model-water, Castro Valley
  8.    Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program, Annual Monitoring Report FY 1994-95, prepared by Woodward-Clyde, November 1996

    Section 4.3 of this report documents the results of an effort to model the geochemistry of copper in urban streams. Using water quality data from Alameda Creek, a geochemical equilibrium model (MINTEAQ2) was used to rank major water quality parameters (pH, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, amorphous iron, carbonate, and salinity) for their importance with respect to their effect on heavy metal speciation. Because the model proved to be capable of simulating the distribution between dissolved and adsorbed (particulate) copper species, the authors conclude that the model provides the opportunity to predict the chemical fate and speciation of copper from water quality data measured during storm events. May be ordered from the Alameda Countywide Clean Water Program; for information see www.cleanwaterprogram.com/publications_libraryResources.htm#reports

    watershed, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-general, model-water, dissolved, particulate
  9.    Santa Clara Valley Urban Runoff Program, Metals Control Measures Plan and Evaluation of Nine Metals of Concern, Volume I, February 1997

    Report provides estimates of sources for mercury, copper, nickel, silver, lead zinc, and selenium in storm water runoff, dry creek flow, and wastewater treatment plant discharges to lower South San Francisco Bay from the Santa Clara Valley. Includes quantitative estimates of the total quantity of copper released annually to lower South San Francisco Bay and a pie chart of sources. Available on the Internet: www.city.palo-alto.ca.us/cleanbay/pdf/mcm.pdf

    watershed, bay, copper-general, lower South San Francisco Bay
  10.    URS Greiner Woodward Clyde and Tetra Tech, Inc. Copper and Nickel Source Characterization Report, prepared for the City of San Jose, 1998

    Initial estimate of copper inputs to lower South San Francisco Bay. "Sources" included wastewater treatment plant discharges, creek flows, atmospheric deposition, and sediment exchange. (Caution: The information in this report is superceded by revised data in the Conceptual Model Report for Copper and Nickel in Lower South San Francisco Bay, December 1999).

    copper-general, lower South San Francisco Bay
  11.    Tetra Tech, Inc. Conceptual Model Report for Copper and Nickel in Lower South San Francisco Bay, Final Report, December 1999

    Presents a conceptual model for copper and nickel concentrations in lower South San Francisco Bay. Includes estimates of copper inputs and inventories in the Bay, descriptions of the processes thought to be most important to controlling copper cycling, and discussion of the effects of copper on the uptake and toxicity to aquatic organisms. This model was a key element of the copper total maximum daily load (TMDL) for lower South San Francisco Bay. Available on the Internet: www.sanjoseca.gov/esd/pub_res.asp

    fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-general, copper-toxicity, model-water, dissolved, particulate, lower South San Francisco Bay
  12.    Tetra Tech, Inc.; Ross & Associates; EOA, Inc. Copper Action Plan, Final Report, June 2000 (updated February 2001)

    Copper management plan for the lower South San Francisco Bay.The plan lists actions to be taken (primarily by local government agencies) that have the potential to reduce copper concentrations in lower South San Francisco Bay. There are three tables of copper control actions: Baseline, Phase I, and Phase II. Baseline actions (intended to be implemented immediately) reference participation in the Brake Pad Partnership. The plan includes specific copper concentrations that, if measured in lower South San Francisco Bay, would trigger Phase I or Phase II actions. Phase I actions reference unidentified further actions to reduce copper releases from vehicle brake pads.Subsequent to completion of the Copper Action Plan, most of its elements have been adopted into water quality permits for the municipal wastewater and storm water discharges to lower South San Francisco Bay. Available on the Internet: www.ci.san-jose.ca.us/esd/pub_res.htm

    copper-general, copper-brake, copper-road, copper-standards, lower South San Francisco Bay
  13.    Looker, R., San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Staff Report on Proposed Site-Specific Water Quality Objectives and Water Quality Attainment Strategy for Copper and Nickel for San Francisco Bay South of the Dumbarton Bridge, Final Staff Report, May 15, 2002

    This 53-page report provides the most complete and succinct summary currently available about the copper and nickel water quality problems in lower South San Francisco Bay. The report describes the solutions to those problems adopted by the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board (the regulatory agency responsible for protecting water quality in San Francisco Bay), which include adjustment of the water quality objectives (standards) and a monitoring and action plan to ensure that copper and nickel concentrations do not increase to unacceptable levels. Includes as attachments the staff summary report and related documentation presented to the Regional Water Quality Control Board when it approved the report.A draft version of this report (which is very similar to the final) is available on the Internet: www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb2/Download.htm

    copper-general, copper-standards, copper-toxicity, model-water, dissolved, particulate, lower South San Francisco Bay
  14.    Chen, C. W.; Leva, D.; Olivieri, A. "Modeling the Fate of Copper Discharged to San Francisco Bay," Journal of Environmental Engineering, October 1996

    Describes a preliminary two-dimensional model of copper in San Francisco Bay. The model was modified from an existing link-node model to address both total and dissolved copper as well as suspended sediments. The numeric model of the entire San Francisco Bay was the first such model to address copper. Simulations of the behavior of copper in the Bay suggest that reducing copper discharges would reduce copper levels in the Bay, but that the Bay's response time would be very long (many years). The model simulations also suggests that reducing winter discharges (such as storm water runoff) would reduce both summer and winter copper concentrations in the Bay.

    bay, transport, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-general, model-water, dissolved, particulate
  15.    Cha, S.; Carter, P; Bradow, R. L. "Simulation of Automobile Brake Wear Dynamics and Estimation of Emissions," Society of Automotive Engineers Transactions Paper 831036, 1983

    Report of brake pad wear debris generation and characterization conducted on asbestos-containing brake pads sold in the early 1980s. Developed a brake dynamometer method for generating brake wear debris mimicking on-road conditions. Measured particle size distributions with an Anderson impactor.

    characterization, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  16.    Brake Manufacturers Council Product Environmental Committee, Disc Brake Wear Debris Generation and Characterization:A Dynamometer Based Protocol for Generating and Collecting Vehicle Disc Brake Wear Debris, prepared by James T. Trainor, May 15, 2001

    Reproducible method for generating representative samples of wear debris from vehicle brake pads, designed to simulate on-road conditions while generating a reasonable quantity of debris in a feasible brake dynamometer use period. Performed a mass balance of the wear debris generation process looking at both total and copper mass loss and mass collected in the airborne and deposited material fractions. Sample characterization included scanning electron microscope photos, particle size distribution counts by scanning electron microscopy, surface chemical analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis. This report is the basis for a Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Paper that is in press (www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_TYP=PAPER&PROD_CD=2002-01-2595).

    copper-brake, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, characterization
  17.    Garg, B. D.; Cadle, S. H.; Mulawa, P. A.; Groblicki, P. J.; Laroo, C.; Parr, G. A. "Brake Wear Particulate Matter Emissions," Environmental Science & Technology, 2000, Vol. 34, pp. 4463-4469

    Report of brake pad wear debris generation and characterization conducted by General Motors. While a brake dynamometer was used, the methods in this study differ from the standard brake pad wear debris generation protocol developed by the Brake Manufacturer's Council. Performed a mass balance of the wear debris generation process looking at mass loss and mass collected in the airborne and deposited material fractions. Conducted limited characterization of the wear debris, including aerodynamic diameter particle size distributions with an in-line micro orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission [PIXE]) of the airborne and deposited material fractions. (Note: a copy of a longer version of the same paper, in the form of the General Motors report, is included in the same file as this paper.)

    chemistry, copper-brake, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, characterization
  18.    Results of copper extraction testing of brake wear debris sample from brake dynamometer dust collection system, 1997

    Laboratory reports of chemical extraction of 1997 brake wear debris sample obtained from cleaning of a brake dynamometer dust collection system.Tests included measurements of total copper, simple copper solubility in model western rain water, and sequential extraction of the sample by the method recommended by Tessier. (Caution: the wear debris sample was not generated by the standard method and is not considered a representative sample.)

    characterization, copper-brake, wear debris
  19.    von Uexkull, O. Antimony in Brake Pads—A Carcinogenic Component?, Masters Thesis in Environmental Science, Lund Graduate School of Biomedical Research, January 2002

    Describes concentrations of various metals, including copper, in pad material and wear debris generated from commercially available disc and drum vehicle brake pads obtained in Europe. Aerodynamic diameter wear debris particle size distributions were measured with an optical particle counter. Report includes scanning electron microscope photos of wear debris and comparisons of metal concentrations (including copper) with other brake pad studies conducted since 1996.

    copper-brake, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, characterization
  20.    Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Contribution of Heavy Metals to Storm Water From Automotive Disc Brake Pad Wear, prepared for the Santa Clara Valley Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Program, October 1994

    First attempt to make a quantitative estimate of metals released annually to lower South San Francisco Bay from light-duty motor vehicle brake pads.Estimates involved measuring copper content of certain light duty vehicle pads and making very simplified estimates of annual release and copper transport to the Bay. (Caution: Subsequent cooperative communications with brake pad manufacturers identified some fundamental errors in the calculation method used in this report.) Available on the Internet: www.city.palo-alto.ca.us/cleanbay/pdf/brake.pdf

    watershed, bay, copper-brake, lower South San Francisco Bay
  21.    Engberg, C. The Regulation and Manufacture of Brake Pads: The Feasibility of Reformulation to Reduce the Copper Load to the San Francisco Bay, prepared for the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant, July 1995

    Evaluation of regulatory options available to require reduction in copper releases from vehicle brake pads. Recommends a voluntary pollution prevention program be attempted.Available on the Internet: www.city.palo-alto.ca.us/cleanbay/pdf/brkrpt.pdf

    copper-brake, lower South San Francisco Bay
  22.    Cooke, T. Feasibility of Detecting Changes in Environmental Copper Concentrations as a Result of Changes in Automotive Brake Pad Composition, Technical Report, prepared for the City of Palo Alto by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde, May 3, 1999

    Report identifies potential indicators of urban environmental copper trends (street dirt, storm water runoff, aquatic organisms). After a discussion of issues of environmental sample variability, identifies the number of "before" and "after" samples of various media that would be needed to determine with statistical significance a 25% or a 50% change in copper levels in the measured medium. For a 25% change, 40 before and after samples of urban runoff, 40 street dirt samples, and 14 clam samples would be needed.For a 50% change, 10 before and after urban runoff samples, 10 street dirt samples, and 6 clam samples would be needed. Report includes rough cost estimates for sampling (1999 costs) and recommendations for consideration should a sampling program be pursued.

    watershed, bay, transport, copper-general, copper-brake
  23.    Turer, D.; Maynard, J. B.; Sansalone, J. J. "Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils of Urban Highways: Comparison Between Runoff and Soil Concentrations at Cincinnati, Ohio," Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2001, Vol. 132, pp 293-314

    Measured metals concentrations in roadside soil samples. Most vehicle-associated metals (including copper) were found in the top 15 centimeters of soil. Lead, zinc, and copper concentrations were closely correlated—in contrast to concentrations of nickel and chromium, which were not associated with each other nor with the first three metals. Sequential extraction of the samples by a method similar to that of Tessier (to identify the potential environmental availability of the metals) found that somewhat less than half of the copper was extracted before the "residual" extraction. Most of the extracted copper was in the "organically bound" and "carbonate bound" fractions. Separately, an "exchangeable" fraction was measured by suspending roadway soil samples overnight in an ammonium acetate solution; this extracted about 7% of the copper.

    watershed, transport, fate, sediments-road, chemistry, copper-road
  24.    Sansalone, J. J.; Buchberger, S. G.; Koechling, M. T. "Correlations Between Heavy Metals and Suspended Solids in Highway Runoff: Implications for Control Strategies," Transportation Research Record, 1995, Vol. 1483, pp. 112-119

    Examined correlation between highway runoff suspended solids concentrations and metals concentrations, finding a weak correlation between solids and metals concentrations for rainfall (and a strong correlation for snow wash-off). Examined relationship between heavy metals and suspended solid particle sizes, finding that metals tended to appear most commonly in smallest and largest particle size ranges studied (but correlations were weak).

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, particle size distribution
  25.    Sansalone, J. J.; Buchberger, S. G. "Characterization of Solid and Metal Element Distributions in Urban Highway Stormwater," Water Science and Technology, 1997, Vol. 36, pp. 155-160.

    Measured particle size distribution in highway runoff.Measured metals concentrations in each particle fraction, finding that copper, lead, and zinc mass increased with decreasing particle size.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, particulate, particle size distribution
  26.    Sansalone, J. J.; Buchberger, S. G.; Al-Abed, S. R. "Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Pavement Runoff," The Science of the Total Environment, 1996, Vol. 189/190, pp. 371-378.

    Copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc were found primarily in the dissolved form when they left highway pavement. Chromium and lead were about half dissolved and half in particulate forms.Authors indicates that they believe that the dissolution was at least partly due to low rain pH and lack of pH neutralization by asphalt pavement (results from similar studies on concrete pavement in Louisiana showed primarily particulate copper).

    watershed, transport, copper-road, dissolved
  27.    Sansalone, J. J.; Buchberger, S. "Partitioning and First Flush of Metals in Urban Roadway Storm Water," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1997, Vol. 123, No. 2, pp. 134-143

    Investigation of how metals partitioned between particulate and dissolved phases in roadway storm water wash-off from a heavily traveled urban section of highway. Copper was found primarily in the dissolved form.

    watershed, transport, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  28.    Glenn, D. W.; Liu, D.; Sansalone, J. J. "Influence of Highway Runoff Chemistry, Hydrology and Residence Time on Non-Equilibrium Partitioning of Heavy Metals—Implications for Treatment at the Highway Shoulder," Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Paper #01-0336, 2001.

    Detailed examination of highway runoff water quality chemistry.Measured alkalinity, hardness, pavement residence time, pH, and dissolved and total metals concentrations.Found that about 70% of copper in runoff at the highway shoulder is typically in the dissolved form.

    watershed, chemistry, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  29.    Sansalone, J. J.; Koran, J. M.; Smithson, J. A.; Buchberger, S. G. "Physical Characteristics of Urban Roadway Solids Transported During Rain Events," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1998, Vol. 124, pp. 427-440.

    Measured physical characteristics of solids in highway runoff.Evaluated particle transport (including wash-off limitations) based on particle sizes. Measured specific surface area of particles in size classes.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, particulate, particle size distribution
  30.    Sansalone, J. J.; Tribouillard, T. "Variation in Characteristics of Abraded Roadway Particles as a Function of Particle Size," Transportation Research Record, 1999, Vol. 1690, pp. 153-163

    Collected (by vacuuming) and characterized particulate from the surface of highway pavement. Measured particle size distribution, specific gravity (density), surface area, and metals concentrations. Found that particle-specific surface area increased with decreasing particle size, but that the total particle surface area decreased with decreasing particle size.Found that despite the correlation between decreasing particle size and increasing copper concentration, most of the metal mass in the collected sediments was associated with the coarse to mid-range size particles (for copper, generally the 300 micron diameter particles and smaller).

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, characterization, copper-road, particle size distribution
  31.    De Carlo, E. H.; Spencer, K. J. "Retrospective Analysis of Anthropogenic Inputs of Lead and Other Heavy Metals to the Hawaiian Sedimentary Environment," Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 1997, Vol. 11, pp. 415-437

    Measured heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of the Ala Wai Canal, a small urban drainage in Honolulu with an unusually high sedimentation rate. Lead concentration data from dated sediment cores shows a strong correlation with the timing of the phase-out of leaded gasoline additives. Used isotope analysis to separate urban from rural (natural soil) contributions to lead concentrations. Paper includes plots of copper concentrations in sediment cores, dated by depth (data are normalized by iron content to simplify interpretation).The data show a significant increase in copper concentrations in the cores around 1990; similar increases did not occur for other metals.

    watershed, transport, sediments-water, copper-general, analog
  32.    Spencer, K. J.; De Carlo, E. H.; McMurtry, G. M. "Isotopic Clues to Sources of Natural and Anthropogenic Lead in Sediments and Soils from Oahu, Hawaii," Pacific Science, 1995, Vol. 49, pp. 492-510

    Analyzed metals concentrations in soils, stream sediments, and estuarine sediments in Oahu. Found correlations between the timing of lead concentration increases and decreases and the use and phase-out of lead in gasoline. Identified a correlation between zinc and cadmium concentration increases and the increased use of vulcanized rubber (which contains these two metals) in tires. Used isotope analysis of lead to "fingerprint" anthropogenic lead.Identified air deposition as a contributor to anthropogenic lead loadings.

    watershed, deposition, transport, sediments-water, chemistry, analog
  33.    De Carlo, E. H.; Spencer, K. J. "Records of Lead and Other Heavy Metal Inputs to Sediments of the Ala Wai Canal, Oahu, Hawaii," Pacific Science, 1995, Vol. 49, pp. 471-491

    Present dated depth profiles of metals concentrations in the sediments of the Ala Wai Canal, a small urban drainage in Honolulu with an unusually high sedimentation rate. Similar to paper #031, but more analysis of the metals concentrations and possible metals sources.

    watershed, transport, sediments-water, copper-general, analog
  34.    Sutherland, R. A.; Tolosa, C. A. "Variation in Total and Extractable Elements with Distance from Roads in an Urban Watershed, Honolulu, Hawaii," Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2001, Vol. 127, pp. 315-338.

    Measured metals concentrations along transects starting at the edges of roads. Measured total and extractable (dilute hydrochloric acid extraction) concentrations of aluminum, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc. Total concentrations were compared to "background" levels for the same elements. Copper levels near the road were significantly higher than background. Copper concentration decreased relatively quickly with distance from road (concentrations similar to background by about 10 meters from road edge).

    watershed, deposition, transport, sediments-road, copper-road
  35.    Sutherland, R. A.; Tolosa, C. A.; Tack, F. M. G.; Verloo, M. G. "Characterization of Selected Element Concentrations and Enrichment Ratios in Background and Anthropogenically Impacted Roadside Areas,"Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2000, Vol. 38, pp. 428-438.

    Measured total and extractable metals concentrations in background soil, roadside soil, and road sediment in the Manoa, Hawaii watershed.Found that copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were anthropogentically enhanced. Copper concentrations exceeded background (background for the watershed), but the paper notes that copper data in the study watershed are somewhat difficult to interpret because background copper levels are 4.6 to 8 times greater than typical crustal values. Examined potential linkage of elevated lead concentrations near roads and elevated lead concentrations in fish in the watershed, finding strong circumstantial evidence that the two concentrations are linked.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, copper-general, copper-road, analog
  36.    Sutherland, R. A.; Tack, F. M. G. "Metal Phase Associations in Soils from an Urban Watershed, Honolulu, Hawaii," The Science of the Total Environment, 2000, Vol. 256, pp. 103-113.

    Examined metals concentrations in soil samples from the Manoa, Hawaii watershed. Samples included roadside samples, which showed the highest trace metals concentrations. Soil samples were tested for metal bioavailability using a sequential extraction method similar to that of Tessier. While data for lead are examined in detail, little copper data is reported (and previous papers have noted that this watershed has elevated background copper levels - see #035).

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-general, analog
  37.    Sutherland, R. A.; Tolosa, C. A. "Multi-Element Analysis of Road-Deposited Sediment in an Urban Drainage Basin, Honolulu, Hawaii," Environmental Pollution, 2000, Vol. 110, pp. 483-495.

    Analyzed metals in road sediments from the Manoa, Hawaii watershed.(Note: previous papers have noted that this watershed has elevated background copper levels—see #035). Measured total and extractable (dilute hydrochloric acid extraction) metals in samples, which were generally collected from curb areas on roads in the watershed. Copper levels in road sediments significantly exceeded background levels. About 55% of the copper in the roadside samples was "extractable," as compared to about 18% of the "background" copper. This data (indicating copper bioavailability) and the overall copper concentrations (well above sediment effect levels guidelines) lead the authors to suggest that adverse biological impacts in the watershed were probably for copper, lead, and zinc. Brake pads, tires, and asphalt are identified as possible copper sources. Elevated antimony concentrations in roadside soils (about 10 times background) are suggested to be due to antimony use in vehicle brakes.

    watershed, sediments-road, chemistry, copper-road, copper-toxicity
  38.    Pitt, R. Small Storm Urban Flow and Particulate Washoff Contributions to Outfall Discharges, Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1987.

    Records results of experiments conducted on build-up and wash-off of pollutants on roads. Used experimental results to develop a model for this build-up and wash-off. The data and modeling equation in this thesis are the basis for the build-up and wash-off functions in many urban watershed models.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, model-water
  39.    Pitt, R. Characterizing and Controlling Urban Runoff Through Street and Sewerage Cleaning, Project Summary, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Engineering Research Laboratory, EPA/600/S2-85/038, June 1985.

    Summary of a detailed study of street dirt, which included chemical and physical characterization, source analysis, accumulation rate estimates, wash-off fraction modeling, and evaluation of the effectiveness of sediment control measures such as street sweeping.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, characterization, model-water
  40.    Pitt, R. "Source Characterization," Chapter 4 in Heaney, J. P.; Pitt, R.; Field, R. Innovative Urban Wet-Weather Flow Management Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, EPA/600/R-99/029, 1999

    An up-to-date summary of urban runoff pollutant characteristics, including information regarding the build-up and wash-off of pollutants and sediments from urban surfaces. The entire report is available on the Internet: www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/publish/book/epa-600-r-99-029/

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, characterization, model-water
  41.    Pitt, R. "Accumulation, Washoff, and Size Distributions of Stormwater Particulates," draft paper sent to City of Palo Alto, 1996.

    Unpublished draft paper describes build-up and wash-off of particles from urban surfaces.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, characterization, model-water
  42.    Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A. R. "Porewater Gradients and Diffusive Benthic Fluxes of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in San Francisco Bay," Croatica Chimica Acta, 1997, Vol. 70, No. 1, p. 389.

    Describes the mechanisms for and measures the remobilization of copper from San Francisco Bay sediments. Concludes that remobilization of copper is greater than either riverine or point source inputs of copper to San Francisco Bay.

    bay, fate, sediments, chemistry, copper-general, dissolved, particulate
  43.    Steding, D. J.; Dunlap, C. E.; Flegal, A. R. "New Isotopic Evidence for Chronic Lead Contamination in the San Francisco Bay Estuary System: Implications for the Persistence of Past Industrial Lead Emissions in the Biosphere," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2000, Vol. 97, pp. 11181-11186

    Used isotope analysis to investigate lead sources in San Francisco Bay sediments, finding that leaded gasoline was the major source of lead.Mass balance calculations and isotopic analysis suggest that much of the lead deposited in the San Francisco Bay watershed from gasoline remains in the watershed system. The authors conclude that historic gasoline lead deposits may remain in the watershed system for decades.

    watershed, bay, deposition, transport, sediments-water, analog
  44.    Characklis, G. W.; Wiesner, M. R. "Particles, Metals, and Water Quality in Runoff from Large Urban Watershed," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1997, Vol. 123, pp. 753-759

    Measured metals concentrations and particle size distributions in urban runoff. Copper data are not reported. Explores the relationship of duration and time during storm events to the particle size distributions in runoff.

    watershed, transport, particulate, particle size distribution
  45.    Grout, H.; Wiesner, M. R.; Bottero, J. "Analysis of Colloidal Phases in Urban Stormwater Runoff," Environmental Science & Technology, 1999, Vol. 33, pp. 831-839.

    Evaluated the composition and morphology of colloidal materials (suspended fine particles) in urban runoff. Found that colloid composition changed during storm events and differed between dry weather flows and rain events. Found a high percentage of the copper to be in a dissolved form; much of this (40 to 80%) was in a colloidal state.

    watershed, chemistry, copper-general, dissolved, particulate
  46.    Rauch, S.; Morrison, G. M.; Motelica-Heino, M.; Donard, O. F. X.; Muris, M. "Elemental Association and Fingerprinting of Traffic-Related Metals in Road Sediments," Environmental Science and Technology, 2000, Vol. 34, p. 3119

    Explored metals releases from combustion catalysts in motor vehicles.Looked at the chemical structure of road sediments.

    air, deposition, chemistry, analog, sediments-road
  47.    Ellis, J. B.; Revitt, D. M. "Incidence of Heavy Metals in Street Surface Sediments:Solubility and Grain Size Studies," Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1982, Vol. 17, pp. 87-100.

    Measurements of metals concentrations in surface and gutter sediments from London roads. Historic data (1979 samples) includes metal concentrations, particle sizes, and test of leaching with rain water.

    watershed, sediments-road, characterization, copper-road, particle size distribution
  48.    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P. "Pollutant Concentrations in Road Runoff:Southeast Queensland Case Study," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2000, Vol. 126, pp. 313-320.

    Sampled road runoff and tested for a wide variety of pollutants, including copper. Sampling locations with exit lanes had higher concentrations of copper and zinc, supporting the authors' hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentration of these metals in road runoff.

    watershed, transport, characterization, copper-road
  49.    Kleeman, M. J.; Hughes, L. S.; Allen, J. O.; Cass, G. R. "Source Contributions to the Size and Composition Distribution of Atmospheric Particles: Southern California in September 1996," Environmental Science & Technology, 1999, Vol. 33, pp. 4331-4341

    Created and validated a model linking the characteristics of particles in atmospheric deposition to the primary sources (mineral dust and road dust, combustion-related particles, sea salt, and sulfate-containing non-sea salt "background" particles).

    air, deposition, model-air, analog, particle size distribution
  50.    Ho, M. D.; Evans, G. J. "Sequential Extraction of Metal Contaminated Soils with Radiochemical Assessment of Readsorption Effects," Environmental Science & Technology, 2000, Vol. 34, pp. 1030-1035.

    Analytical evaluation of the Tessier method of sequential extraction of soil and sediment samples to assess the potential bioavailability of metals in the sample. The study, which was conducted to evaluate the importance of the finding that some extracted metals readsorbed onto samples, found that the Tessier method was valid for copper.

    Keywords:chemistry, characterization, copper-general, copper-toxicity
  51.    Jarvis, K. E.; Parry, S. J.; Piper, J. M. "Temporal and Spatial Studies of Autocatalyst-Derived Platinum, Rhodium, and Palladium and Selected Vehicle-Derived Trace Elements in the Environment," Environmental Science & Technology, 2001, Vol. 35, pp. 1031-1036.

    The presence of platinum, palladium, and rhodium (elements in automobile catalytic converters) near roadsides was explored. Looked at concentrations in road sediments and surface soils extending away from roads. Evaluated potential transport mechanisms.

    watershed, deposition, transport, sediments-road, analog
  52.    Allen, A. G.; Nemitz, E.; Shi, J. P.; Harrison, R. M.; Greenwood, J. C. "Size Distributions of Trace Metals in Atmospheric Aerosols in the United Kingdom," Atmospheric Environment, 2001, Vol. 35, pp. 4581-4591.

    Characterization of metals in airborne fine particles in England and Scotland. Some sampling conducted downwind of urban areas. Measured particle size distributions and metals concentrations in each size fraction. The data shows broad size distribution of copper-containing particles. (Note: copper data cannot be read on photocopies.)

    air, deposition, characterization, particle size distribution
  53.    Paode, R. D.; Sofuoglu, S. C.; Sivadechathep, J.; Noll, K. E.; Holsen, T. M.; Keeler, G. J. "Dry Deposition Fluxes and Mass Size Distributions of Pb, Cu, and Zn Measured in Southern Lake Michigan During AEOLOS," Environmental Science & Technology, 1998, Vol. 32, pp. 1629-1635.

    Dry deposition fluxes (quantities per unit time) and particle size distributions were measured for the southern basin of Lake Michigan.Copper deposition was substantially higher over Chicago than in a smaller urban area or over Lake Michigan itself (unless the lake was subject to air flow from Chicago). Provides particle size distributions for deposited copper-containing particles.

    air, deposition, copper-general, particle size distribution
  54.    Andral, M. C.; Roger, S.; Montrejaud-Vignoles, M.; Herremans, L. "Particle Size Distribution and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Solid Matter Carried by Runoff from Motorways,"Water Environment Research, 1999, Vol. 71, pp. 398-407.

    Characterized road runoff and road sediments collected in settling-type runoff treatment devices. Measured metals concentrations, particle size distribution, particle density, mineral content, and total suspended solids in runoff. Looked at sedimentation rates for particles less than about 100 microns in diameter.

    watershed, transport, sediments-water, sediments-road, characterization, particle size distribution
  55.    Ely, J. C.; Neal, C. R.; Kulpa, C. F.; Schneegurt, M. A.; Seidler, J. A.; Jain, J. C. "Implications of Platinum-Group Element Accumulation along U. S. Roads from Catalytic-Converter Attrition," Environmental Science & Technology, 2001, Vol. 35, p. 3816.

    Looked at rhodium, platinum, and palladium content of soils from U.S. roadsides. These three elements are dispersed from automobile catalytic converters.Concentrations of all three elements near roadsides were well above background (approaching concentrations that would be economically viable to recover). Concentrations correlated with concentrations of traffic-related elements in soils (including copper). Platinum was observed at statistically significantly higher concentrations than background levels more than 50 meters from a roadside.

    air, deposition, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, analog
  56.    Weckwerth, G. "Verification of Traffic Emitted Aerosol Components in the Ambient Air of Cologne (Germany)," Atmospheric Environment, 2001, Vol. 35, pp. 5525-5536.

    Collected wet and dry atmospheric deposition samples in an urban area, with the intent of focusing on transportation sources of pollutants.Measured particle size distribution (greater than or less than 2.5 microns in diameter) and chemical composition.Using component separation, estimated relative contributions from various sources, including brakes.Found that copper, antimony, and cadmium concentrations were the most enriched as compared to background soil concentrations. Linked copper and antimony concentrations to vehicle brakes, partly due to the consistent ratio of the concentrations of the two metals in deposition samples.Another copper source evaluated in the study was overhead electrical cables for trams (which were found to be a relatively small source).

    air, deposition, copper-brake, copper-road, particle size distribution
  57.    Kumata, H.; Yamada, J.; Masuda, K.; Takada, H.; Sato, Y.; Sakuri, T.; Fujiwara, K. "Benzothiazolamines as Tire-Derived Molecular Markers: Sorptive Behavior in Street Runoff and Application to Source Apportioning," Environmental Science & Technology, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 702-708.

    Wash-off and environmental fate of two benzothiazolamines (trace organic chemicals in vulcanized rubber used in tires) were investigated as possible tracers for tire debris or road dust transported in highway storm water runoff. One of the two compounds, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA) was found to bind strongly and relatively permanently to sediments in runoff, suggesting that it could be a useful indicator of highway-runoff related sediments in surface waters.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, analog
  58.    Wrobel, A.; Rokita, E.; Maenhaut, W. "Transport of Traffic-Related Aerosols in Urban Areas," The Science of the Total Environment, 2000, Vol. 257, pp. 199-211.

    Collected ambient air (not deposition) samples of particles in Krakow, Poland at various distances from heavily traveled roads.. Samples were characterized by distance from roads (up to 1,500 meters), particle size distribution (greater than or less than 1.9 microns in diameter), and metals concentrations (by particle-induced X-ray emission [PIXE] spectrometry). Estimated traffic contribution to the amount of particles in samples in both the larger and smaller size fractions. Copper was detected in all samples, with highest concentrations in the larger particle size fraction in samples relatively near roads. Copper concentrations fell rapidly as distance from road increased. Air quality modeling was used to estimate the fraction of the particles at various distances from the road that were due to road sources.

    air, transport, copper-road, model-air, particle size distribution
  59.    Bhuie, A. K.; Roy, D. N. "Deposition of Mn from Automotive Combustion of Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl Beside the Major Highways in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada," Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 2001, Vol. 51, pp. 1288-1301.

    Explored the potential for increased deposition of the metal manganese along roads from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a motor vehicle fuel additive. While manganese was not found at elevated concentrations in near-road surface soils, copper was. Although copper data are presented in the paper, the copper results were not discussed.The copper data presented in the paper appear to show a increased copper concentrations for soils near roads with higher average daily traffic, as well as an increased copper concentration for samples closer to the road (samples at 1 and 40 meters from highway).

    air, deposition, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, analog
  60.    Callender, E.; Van Metre, P. C. "Reservoir Sediment Cores Show U. S. Lead Declines," Environmental Science & Technology, 1997, Vol. 31, p. 424A.

    Summarized data collected by the USGS that find a correlation between increasing and declining use of lead in gasoline and increasing and then declining concentrations of lead in reservoir sediments. Found that lead concentrations in sediments today remain approximately double the pre-lead in gasoline baseline, which the authors attribute to continued presence of legacy lead in urban environments.

    deposition, transport, fate, sediments-water, analog, USGS
  61.    Rice, K. C. "Trace-Element Concentrations in Streambed Sediment Across the Conterminous United States," Environmental Science and Technology, 1999, Vol. 33, pp. 2499-2504.

    The USGS has made publicly available its nationwide data on streambed sediment. This paper describes the database and does some initial analysis—for example, it found a nationwide correlation between urbanization and elevated copper levels in streambed sediments. Data are available on line through the USGS trace elements web page: http://co.water.usgs.gov/trace/

    watershed, sediments-water, copper-general, USGS
  62.    Callender, E.; Rice, K. C. "The Urban Environmental Gradient: Anthropogenic Influences on the Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Lead and Zinc in Sediments," Environmental Science and Technology, 2000, Vol. 34, pp. 232-237.

    Documented a relationship between traffic density and lead and zinc in watershed sediments. Data also showed declines in watershed sediment lead concentrations correlating with the removal of lead from gasoline. A similar decline was not observed for zinc. Copper levels were not evaluated.

    watershed, sediments-water, analog, USGS
  63.    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.; Furlong, E. T. "Urban Sprawl Leaves Its PAH Signature," Environmental Science and Technology, 2000, Vol. 34, pp. 4064-4070.

    Explored the relationship of traffic levels to lake and reservoir sediment polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. Although past studies have documented declines in sediment PAH levels starting in the 1950s, this study documented a steady increase in sediment PAH levels across the United States. Analysis of the specific PAHs measured indicated that the PAHs with increasing concentrations are associated with combustion sources. Increased PAH levels tracked closely with increases in automobile use in study watersheds.

    watershed, sediments-water, analog, USGS
  64.    Luoma, S. N. "Prediction of Metal Toxicity in Nature from Bioassays: Limitations and Research Needs," Chapter 11 in Tessier, A.; Turner, D. R., eds. Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

    Review article considering the strengths and weaknesses of various methods of estimating the toxicity of metals like copper in aquatic ecosystems.

    fate, sediments-water, chemistry, characterization, copper-toxicity, USGS
  65.    Lee, B. G.; Griscom, S. B.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, H. J.; Koh, C. H.; Luoma, S. N.; Fisher, N. S. "Influences of Dietary Uptake and Reactive Sulfides on Metal Bioavailability from Aquatic Sediments," Science, 2000, Vol. 287, pp. 282-284.

    For four types of common aquatic invertebrate species, feeding behavior and dietary uptake were found to control bioaccumulation of metals.Metal concentrations in animal tissue correlated with metal concentrations extracted from sediments.This finding differs from the common theory that aquatic invertebrate exposures relate to metals concentrations in sediment pore water and that exposures may have a negative correlation with acid-volatile sulfides levels. The paper provides laboratory data for cadmium, nickel, and zinc, but then uses field data to suggest similar results for silver.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity
  66.    Hornberger, M. I.; Luoma, S. N.; Cain, D. J.; Parchaso, F.; Brown, C. L.; Bouse, R. M.; Wellise, C.; Thompson, J. K. "Linkage of Bioaccumulation and Biological Effects to Changes in Pollutant Loads in South San Francisco Bay," Environmental Science & Technology, 2000, Vol. 12, pp. 2401-2409.

    Presents data from monitoring metals concentrations in clams exposed to both discharge from the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plan and urban runoff from the Palo Alto, California area. Documents correlation between declining quantities of copper and silver in sewage treatment plant effluent and copper and silver concentrations in clams. Elevated concentrations of copper and silver prevented clam reproduction in the 1970's and 1980s; reproduction recovered as metal concentration declined. Inputs from urban runoff controlled zinc levels in the clams during the same time period.

    bay, sediments-water, copper-toxicity, USGS, lower South San Francisco Bay
  67.    Bricker, O. An Overview of the Factors Involved in Evaluating the Geochemical Effects of Highway Runoff on the Environment, USGS Open File Report 98-630, 1999.

    Brief overview of the factors that the authors feel should be considered in evaluating the geochemical effects of highway runoff on the environment. Describes geochemical models for evaluation of metals, including copper, in highway runoff. Available on the Internet: http://ma.water.usgs.gov/fhwa/products/ofr98-630.pdf

    fate, chemistry, copper-road, copper-toxicity, USGS
  68.    Colman, J. A.; Rice, K. C.; Willoughby, T. C. Methodology and Significance of Studies of Atmospheric Deposition in Highway Runoff, USGS Open File Report 01-259, 2001.

    Review of available information regarding atmospheric deposition of pollutants on highways. Considers possible methods for modeling and measuring deposition. Available on the Internet: http://ma.water.usgs.gov/fhwa/products/ofr01259.pdf

    air, deposition, sediments-road, copper-road, model-air, USGS
  69.    Breault, R. F.; Granato, G. E. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff, USGS Open File Report 00-422, 2000.

    Review of environmental sampling results for highway runoff and sediments. Describes copper and other metal levels in context (e.g., background soil concentrations). Describes ideal monitoring methods for highway runoff environmental samples. Available on the Internet: http://ma.water.usgs.gov/fhwa/products/ofr00-422.pdf

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, dissolved, particulate, USGS
  70.    Kuwabara, J. S.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Khechfe, A. I.; Hunter, Y. R. "Importance of Dissolved Sulfides and Organic Substances in Controlling the Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in San Francisco Bay," in Hollibaugh, J. T., ed. San Francisco Bay—The Ecosystem, AAAS, 1995.

    Describes the chemical processes that control bioavailability of metals like copper in San Francisco Bay. Documents how sulfides in sediments (as well as dissolved organic substances) play a role in controlling speciation of copper in San Francisco Bay.Presents initial benthic flux (release of copper from sediments) measurement for dissolved copper.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity, dissolved, particulate, USGS, lower South San Francisco Bay
  71.    Cadle, S. H.; Mulawa, P. A.; Ball, J.; Donase, C.; Weibel, A.; Sagebiel, J. C.; Knapp, K. T.; Snow, R. "Particulate Emission Rates from In-Use High-Emitting Vehicles Recruited in Orange County, California," Environmental Science & Technology, 1997, Vol. 31, pp. 3405-3412

    Provides data for tailpipe emissions of copper from motor vehicles.

    air, copper-road
  72.    Antonoplis, R. "At Disneyland, an NPDES Compliance Solution is Heaven-Sent," Environmental Corporate Counsel Report, January 1996.

    Describes (without much data) the experimental finding that most of the copper in runoff from Disneyland could be attributed to atmospheric deposition. Soluble copper in Disneyland runoff averaged 50%. Copper was found to deposit at a relatively uniform rate around the amusement park.

    air, deposition, copper-general, dissolved, particulate
  73.    Tessier, A.; Campbell, P. G. C.; Bisson, M. "Sequential Extraction Procedures for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals," Analytical Chemistry, 1979, Vol. 51, pp. 844-851.

    Procedure for the sequential extraction of a soil or sediment sample to obtain information about the potential bioavailability of metals in the sample. Procedure divides the metal into five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual.

    copper-toxicity
  74.    Wallinder, O. I.; Leygraf, C. "Seasonal Variations in Corrosion Rate and Runoff Rate of Copper Roofs in an Urban and a Rural Atmospheric Environment," Corrosion Science, 2001, Vol. 43, pp. 2379-2396.

    Detailed characterization of the corrosion and runoff of copper samples exposed to air and rain in urban and rural environments. Characterized the chemical composition of the corrosion products that formed on the surface of the copper samples. Measured copper in runoff and performed a mass balance on the material, corrosion product, and runoff copper. Looked at the form of the copper in the runoff, which was found to be 70-90% in the form of dissolved copper measurable with a copper ion selective electrode (which measures dissolved copper 2+ ions). Observed seasonal differences in corrosion chemistry at the rural site only (attributed to humidity changes) and differences in chemistry and runoff quantities between urban and rural test sites, attributed to the presence of pollutants in urban air.

    fate, chemistry, copper-general, dissolved
  75.    Leuenberger-Minger, A. U.; Faller, M.; Richner, P. "Runoff of Copper and Zinc Caused by Atmospheric Corrosion," Materials and Corrosion, 2002, Vol. 53; pp. 157-164.

    Describes corrosion and runoff of copper in an urban environment, using copper metal test plates as the example. Air quality and exposure duration were found to affect copper loss rates significantly. Corrosion occurred more quickly than runoff losses, resulting in the development of a corrosion product film on the copper surface.

    fate, chemistry, copper-general
  76.    Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G. "Review of PM2.5 and PM10 Apportionment for Fossil Fuel Combustion and Other Sources by the Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model," Energy & Fuels, 2002, Vol. 16, pp. 222-260.

    Review article describing use of Chemical Mass Balance receptor model to quantify air emissions source contributions to concentrations of fine particulate material in ambient air.

    air, transport, model-air
  77.    Salma, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Zaray, G. "Comparative Study of Elemental Mass Size Distributions in Urban Atmospheric Aerosol," Journal of Aerosol Science, 2002, Vol. 33, pp. 339-356

    Provides particle size distributions for copper-containing particles in urban air samples from Budapest.

    air, copper-general, particle size distribution
  78.    Fernandez Espinosa, A. J.; Ternero Rodriguez, M.; Barragan del la Rosa, F. J.; Jimenez Sanches, J. C. "A Chemical Speciation of Trace Metals for Fine Urban Particles," Atmospheric Environment, 2002, Vol. 36, pp 773-780.

    Conducted a sequential extraction of fine airborne particulate collected in Seville, Spain. The method was similar to that of Tessier, but only included four fractions. About 75% of the copper was extracted prior to the "residual" extraction, primarily in the "soluble and exchangeable" fraction (about 21%) and the "bound to organic matter, oxidizable, and sulfidic metals" fraction (about 43%).

    air, characterization, copper-general, copper-toxicity
  79.    Stein, S. W.; Gabrio, B. J.; Oberreit, D.; Hairston, P.; Myrdal, P. B.; Beck, T. J. "An Evaluation of Mass-Weighted Size Distribution Measurements with the Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer," Aerosol Science and Technology, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 845-854.

    Evaluation of a method of measuring aerodynamic particle sizes.Compares data from various measurement methods and provides a correction method to account for errors in measurements with the Model 3302 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer.

    air, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  80.    Glenn, D. W.; Sansalone, J. J. "Accretion and Partitioning of Heavy Metals Associated with Snow Exposed to Urban Traffic and Winter Storm Maintenance Activities II," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2002, Vol. 128, pp. 167-185

    Describes behavior of metals in snowmelt. Analyzes partitioning between dissolved and particulate fractions. Includes discussion of particle sizes in runoff, specific surface area, and partitioning of metals based on particle sizes under snowmelt conditions. Finds that copper levels in snowmelt can be relatively high as compared to concentrations in runoff and snowmelt copper concentrations often exceed water quality standards. The relatively high copper concentrations are attributed to the accumulation of copper deposited from vehicles.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, copper-road, copper-standards, dissolved, particulate
  81.    Monaci, F.; Bargagli, R. "Barium and Other Trace Metals as Indicators of Vehicle Emissions," Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1997, Vol. 100, pp. 89-98

    Measured metals concentrations in material deposited on plant leaves in Siena, Italy. Determined that automotive emissions are the principal source of metals enrichment in deposited material. Suggests use of barium as a tracer for vehicle emissions.

    air, deposition, copper-general, analog
  82.    Leecaster, M. K.; Schiff, K.; Tiefenthaler, L. L. "Assessment of Efficient Sampling Designs for Urban Stormwater Monitoring," Water Research, 2002, Vol. 36. pp. 1556-1564

    An analysis of urban runoff sampling methods to determine which methods are most effective at measuring pollutant loads from a watershed.Using ideal methods, finds that sampling as few as three storms per year allows a 20% trend to be detected in mass emissions or concentration over five years; a 10% trend can be detected by sampling seven storms per year for five years.

    watershed, transport
  83.    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Water Quality Standards; Establishment of Numeric Criteria for Priority Toxic Pollutants; States' Compliance—Revision of Metals Criteria," Federal Register, May 4, 1995.

    Provides current national water quality standards for copper. States may adopt more stringent standards.States may adopt less stringent values based on the specific characteristics of a water body. (Note: A copy of the supporting document, Ambient Water Quality Criteria—Saltwater Copper Addendum, April 14, 1995, is included in the folder.)

    copper-standards
  84.    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Notice of Intent to Revise Aquatic Life Criteria for Copper, Silver, Lead, Cadmium, Iron and Selenium; Notice of Intent to Develop Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine, Diazinon, Nonylphenol, Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MtBE), Manganese and Saltwater Dissolved Oxygen (Cape Code to Cape Hatteras); Notice of Data Availability; Request for Data and Information," Federal Register, October, 29, 1999.

    Describes currently applicable U.S. EPA plans for revising the national water quality standards for copper. Refers to a U.S. EPA Internet page (www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-WATER/1999/October/Day-29/w28314.htm

    copper-standards, copper-toxicity
  85.    Renner, R., "Rethinking Water Quality Standards for Metals Toxicity," Environmental Science & Technology, 1997, Vol. 31, pp. 466A-468A.

    Provides an overview of metals toxicity and the issues in setting water quality standards. Uses copper as an example.

    copper-standards, copper-toxicity
  86.    Rozan, T. F.; Benoit, G.; Marsh, H.; Chin, Y. P. "Intercomparison of DPASV and ISE for the Measurement of Cu Complexation Characteristics of NOM in Freshwater," Environmental Science & Technology, 1999, Vol. 33, pp. 1766-1770.

    Describes methods for measuring free copper ion concentrations in environmental water samples. Free copper ion is the form of copper associated with water column copper toxicity.

    chemistry, copper-toxicity
  87.    Rozan, T. F.; Benoit, G. "Geochemical Factors Controlling Free Cu Ion Concentrations in River Water," Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta, 1999, Vol. 63, pp. 3311-3319.

    Describes copper speciation measurements in fresh water samples.

    chemistry, copper-toxicity
  88.    Keating, J. "Street Sweepers: Picking Up Speed and Quieting Down," Stormwater, 2002, Vol. 3, pp. 68-74

    Explains how street sweepers work and pros and cons of various current models. Notes that modern street sweepers can pick up some very fine particulate (matter less than 10 microns in diameter). Available on the Internet: www.forester.net/sw_0207_street.html

    sediments-road
  89.    Claytor, R. "New Developments in Street Sweeper Technology," Technical Note #103 from Watershed Protection Techniques, undated, Vol. 3, pp. 601-604

    Provides background on street sweeper technology and data on sediment load reduction and particle size distribution of collected materials.Estimates that street sweeping weekly can remove 30 to 55% of copper on urban streets. Available on the Internet: www.stormwatercenter.net./Practice/121-Street%20Sweepers.pdf

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road, particle size distribution
  90.    Ma, H.; Kim, S. D.; Allen, H. E.; Cha, D. K. "Effect of Copper Binding by Suspended Particulate Matter on Toxicity," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2002, Vol. 21, pp. 710-714

    One of a series of papers looking at the details of copper toxicity to aquatic organisms in fresh water, focusing specifically on the relationship between copper speciation and toxicity. This article concentrates on the reactions of copper with suspended particles in the water column.

    chemistry, copper-toxicity
  91.    Pitt, R.; McLean, J. Toronto Area Watershed Management Strategy Study, Humber River Pilot Watershed Project, Final Report, Volume One, prepared by Gartner Lee Associates Limited for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, June 1986.

    Documents a series of special paved area wash-off tests conducted to determine the relationships between the dry particulates found on pavement, sheet flow runoff quality, and storm water outfall runoff quality.Tests were conducted on an industrial street and a residential street. These data form the experimental basis for many watershed model build-up and wash-off functions.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, model-water
  92.    Pardo, R.; Barrado, E.; Perez, L.; Vega, M. "Determination and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the Pisuerga River," Water Research, 1990, Vol. 24, pp. 373-379.

    Used Tessier's sequential extraction method to evaluate the potential bioavailability of copper and other metals in urban river sediments. Most of the copper was found in the "bound to reducible phases" and "bound to organic matter and sulfides" fractions.

    watershed, sediments-water, copper-toxicity
  93.    Harrison, R. M. "Physico-Chemical Speciation and Chemical Transformations of Toxic Metals in the Environment," pp. 239-247 of Coughtrey, P. J.; Martin, M. H.; Unsworth, M. H. Pollutant Transport and Fate in Ecosystems, Special Publication Number 5 of the British Ecological Society, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1987.

    Review article describes common experimental techniques for speciation of trace metals like copper in environmental media. Notes that the Tessier method of sequential extractions is the most commonly utilized scheme for evaluating the bioavailability of metals in soils and sediments.

    sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity
  94.    Wood, T. M.; Baptista, A. M.; Kuwabara, J. S.; Flegal, A. R. "Diagnostic Modeling of Trace Metal Partitioning in South San Francisco Bay," Limnology and Oceanography, 1995, Vol. 40, pp. 345-358

    Used a two-dimensional numeric model to investigate the effect of adsorption and desorption from Bay sediments on the concentrations of bioavailable copper and other metals in South San Francisco Bay. Includes discussion of the available data regarding copper speciation in San Francisco Bay.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity, model-water, USGS
  95.    U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Copper," pp. 102-105 in Quality Criteria for Water 1986, EPA 440/5-86-001, 1986.

    The copper water quality information in this reference (commonly known as the Gold Book) provides the technical background for copper water quality standards.

    copper-standards, copper-toxicity
  96.    Palenik, B.; Flegal, A. R. Cyanobacterial Populations in San Francisco Bay, RMP Contribution #42, prepared for the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances, November 1999.

    Presents preliminary results of an investigation of cyanobacteria (a type of phytoplankton particularly sensitive to copper) in San Francisco Bay. Shows that cyanobacteria are present in the Bay, though at much higher abundance in the North Bay than in the more copper-impacted South Bay. Given the Bay's copper concentration, the findings of these sensitive organisms is somewhat of a surprise to scientists.Available on the Internet: www.sfei.org/rmp/reports/cyanobacterial/cyanobacterial.html

    bay, copper-toxicity
  97.    Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A. R. "Benthic Lead Fluxes in San Francisco Bay, California, USA," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1994, Vol. 58, pp. 3307-3313.

    Finds that each year, more lead is released from sediments into the Bay's waters than flows in from streams.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, analog
  98.    Flegal, A. R.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. "Comparable Levels of Trace Metal Contamination in Two Semi-Enclosed Embayments: San Diego Bay and South San Francisco Bay," Environmental Science & Technology, 1993, Vol. 27, pp. 1934-1936

    Concentrations of trace metals in San Diego Bay are similar to concentrations in lower South San Francisco Bay, but San Diego Bay has not received any sewage discharges since 1964. Data evaluation reaches preliminary conclusion that levels of copper and other metals are largely determined by concentrations of those metals in sediments, which can remain relatively highly concentrated in pollutants decades after discharges cease.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, copper-general, lower South San Francisco Bay
  99.    Schiff, K. C.; Bay, S. M.; Stransky, C. "Characterization of Stormwater Toxicants from an Urban Watershed to Freshwater and Marine Organisms" in Southern California Coastal Water Research Project 1999-00 Annual Report, 2000.

    Found urban runoff from the Chollas Creek watershed (San Diego area) was toxic to aquatic organisms. Sea urchin toxicity was traced to zinc and copper. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.sccwrp.org/pub/download/PDFs/1999ANNUALREPORT/06_ar05.pdf

    watershed, bay, copper-toxicity
  100.    0 Daskalakis, K. D.; O'Connor, T. P. "Distribution of Chemical Concentrations in US Coastal and Estuarine Sediment,"Marine Environmental Research, 1995, Vol. 40, pp. 381-398.

    Describes a compilation of data on coastal sediment concentrations of metals and other pollutants. Analysis of the data set showed that copper appeared frequently (72 of 534 samples) at levels considered toxic to marine organisms.

    bay, sediments-water, copper-toxicity
  101.    Jacobson, P. J.; Neves, R. J.; Cherry, D. S.; Farris, J. L. "Sensitivity of Glochidial Stages of Freshwater Mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) to Copper," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1997, Vol. 16, pp. 2384-2392

    Finds that copper in sediments is toxic to juvenile mussels.

    sediments-water, copper-toxicity
  102.    Shacklette, H. T.; Boerngen, J. G. Element Concentrations in Soils and Other Surficial Materials of the Coterminous United States, USGS Professional Paper 1270, 1984.

    Presents data on normal ranges of chemical elements, including copper, in soils in the western and eastern U.S. Additional information about this data is available on the Internet: http://minerals.usgs.gov/sddp/doc/faq/soilchemistry.faq.html

    copper-general, USGS
  103.    Kuwabara, J. S.; Luther, G. W. "Dissolved Sulfides in the Oxic Water Column of San Francisco Bay, California," Estuaries, 1993, Vol. 16, pp. 567-573.

    Dissolved sulfides contribute to controlling metal speciation (including copper) in San Francisco Bay.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity, USGS
  104.    Luoma, S. N.; Carter, J. L. "Effects of Trace Metals on Aquatic Benthos," in Newman, M. C.; McIntosh A. W., eds. Metal Ecotoxicology:Concepts and Applications, Lewis Publishers, 1991

    Review article discussing mechanisms for and observations of metals-caused toxicity in benthic (bottom-dwelling) organisms.

    bay, sediments-water, copper-toxicity, USGS
  105.    Luoma, S. N. "Can We Determine the Biological Availability of Sediment-Bound Trace Elements?" Hydrobiologia, 1989, Vol. 176/177, pp. 379-396.

    Describes how metals in sediments can become bioavailable—and therefore cause toxicity in the ecosystem. The paper identifies available information regarding sediment-bound trace metal toxicity (including copper) and suggests topics for future research.

    bay, fate, sediments-water, chemistry, copper-toxicity, USGS
  106.    Kuwabara, J. S.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Cloern, J. E.; Fries, T. L.; Davis, J. A.; Luoma, S. N. "Trace Metal Associations in the Water Column of South San Francisco Bay, California," Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 1989, Vol. 28, pp. 307-325.

    Describes relationship between copper levels in San Francisco Bay and salinity and dissolved organic carbon. Suggests that the bioavailability of copper, zinc, and cadmium may be among the factors regulating the growth of certain phytoplankton species in the South Bay.

    bay, fate, chemistry, copper-toxicity, USGS
  107.    Morrison, G.; Petrocelli, E. Results of Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Performed on Stormwater Runoff Effluents from Northern Rhode Island, prepared by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and Science Applications International Corporation, ERL-Narragansett Contribution Number 1226, undated

    Describes toxicity tests for storm water runoff that found toxicity to the marine test organisms Mulinia lateralis and Arbacia punctulata correlated with the concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in the urban runoff.

    watershed, copper-toxicity
  108.    Walle, J. P. (General Motors Legal Staff) "Case Studies in Stormwater Enforcement & Permitting: Lessons Learned," Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Clean Water Act Corporate Counsel Retreat and Information Exchange, American Bar Association Section of Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law, May 11, 1995

    Describes how atmospheric deposition of copper contributed to stormwater permit violations at various General Motors facilities.

    watershed, deposition, copper-general, copper-standards
  109.    Anderson, A. "Friction and Wear of Automotive Brakes," pp. 569-577 in Blau, P. J., ed., ASM Handbook Volume 18, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, ASM International, 1992.

    Review article describes some of the major factors considered in designing automotive brake linings, including the general composition, wear behaviors (including brake system properties that affect wear like brake temperature), frictional characteristics, frictional performance, and methods commonly used to evaluate brakes in a laboratory.

    brake pads
  110.    Harper, G. A. Brakes and Friction Materials, The History and Development of the Technologies, Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited, 1998

    Reviews history and types of vehicle brake systems, including friction materials used as brake linings (brake pads).

    brake pads
  111.    Sasaki, Y. (Akebono) "Development of Non-Asbestos Friction Materials," presented at Aramid Fibers, 5th Akzo Symposium, undated.

    Review paper identifies some key characteristics (like friction, fade, wear, judder, vibration, noise, corrosion, thermal properties) for design of vehicle brake friction materials (brake pads). Provides insight into the brake pad formulation development process.

    brake pads
  112.    Wirth, A.; Whitaker, R.; Turner, S.; Fixter, G. "X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterisation of Third Body Layers Formed During Automotive Friction Braking," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 1994, Vol. 68, pp. 675-683.

    Chemical analysis of the thin film of material transferred from a vehicle brake friction material (brake pad) to the brake surface (e.g., brake rotor) provides insight as to the way that chemical components of a brake pad affect the brake's performance.

    wear debris, brake pads
  113.    Wirth, A.; Eggleston, D.; Whitaker, R. "A Fundamental Tribochemical Study of The Third Body layer Formed During Automotive Friction Braking," Wear, 1994, Vol. 179, pp. 75-81

    Chemical analysis of the thin film of material transferred from a vehicle brake friction material (brake pad) to the brake surface (e.g., brake rotor) provides insight as to the way that chemical components of a brake pad affect the brake's performance and the relationships of various braking properties to the brake pad formulation.

    wear debris, brake pads
  114.    Wirth, A.; Whitaker, R. "An Energy Dispersive X-ray and Imagining X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopical Study of Transfer Film Chemistry and its Influence on Friction Coefficient," Journal of Physics D:Applied Physics, 1992, Vol. 25, pp. A38-A43.

    Chemical analysis of the thin film of material transferred from a vehicle brake friction material (brake pad) to the brake surface (e.g., brake rotor) shows a relationship between the film's chemical composition and the coefficient of friction for the brake.

    wear debris, brake pads
  115.    Sweet, C. W.; Basu, I. "Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Pollutants to Lake Michigan from Urban Areas," presentation at the Air & Waste Management Association 87th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1994.

    Data for chemical composition of atmospheric deposition materials at three different locations near Lake Michigan. Data do not include copper concentrations.

    air, deposition
  116.    Hoff, R. M.; Rice, K. A. "Atmospheric Dry Deposition of PAHs and Trace Metals to Lake Ontario and Lake Huron," presentation at the Air & Waste Management Association 87th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1994.

    Data for chemical composition of atmospheric deposition materials at one location near the Great Lakes. Limited copper concentration data (airborne particles only).

    air, deposition
  117.    Golomb, D.; Ryan, D.; Underhill, J.; Eby, G. N.; Wade, T.; Zemba, S. "Atmospheric Deposition of Toxic Metals and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons onto Massachusetts Bay," presentation at the Air & Waste Management Association 87th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1994.

    Data for chemical composition of atmospheric deposition materials at two locations near Massachusetts Bay. Includes copper concentration data.

    air, deposition
  118.    Lin, J. J.; Holsen, T. M.; Noll, K. E. "Atmospheric Dry Deposition Around Lake Michigan: Comparison of Modeled and Ambient Data" presentation at the Air & Waste Management Association 87th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 1994

    Data for chemical composition of atmospheric deposition materials at three different locations near Lake Michigan. Includes limited copper concentration data and particle size data.

    air, deposition
  119.    Hauri, J. Scoping Study of Air Deposition Monitoring Information Relevant to Water Quality of San Francisco Bay, Final Report, Prepared by the San Francisco Estuary Institute for the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association, September 1998.

    Summarizes information available at the time the report was prepared regarding deposition of water pollutants, including copper, into the San Francisco Bay and Bay watersheds (since this report was completed, air deposition measurements have been made, see #001). Describes ambient air metals monitoring data available from the California Air Resources Board.

    air, deposition
  120.    Hughes, L. S.; Cass, G. R.; Gone, J.; Ames, M.; Olmes, I. "Physical and Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles in the Los Angeles Area," Environmental Science & Technology, 1998, Vol. 32, pp. 1153-1161.

    Collected airborne particles in the Los Angeles area and analyzed them for particle size distribution and chemical composition (copper content is not reported). Experimental section describes a variety of particle size distribution measurement methods.

    air, particle size distribution
  121.    Zayed, J.; Hong, B.; L'Esperance, G. "Characterization of Manganese-Containing Particles Collected from the Exhaust Emissions of Automobiles Running with MMT Additive," Environmental Science & Technology, 1999, Vol. 33, pp. 3341-3346.

    Describes techniques for characterizing specific particles emitted from vehicles. The manganese-containing particles were identified and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). The latter allowed analysis of the chemistry of the manganese-containing particles, which were shown to consist of a mixture of manganese phosphate and manganese sulfate.

    air, fate, chemistry, analog
  122.    Common Ground for the Environment, Brake Pad Partnership Phase I Report, October 1996.

    Describes the initiation of the Brake Pad Partnership.

    copper-brake, lower South San Francisco Bay
  123.    Sustainable Conservation, The Brake Pad Partnership Project, Project Summary and Update Interim Phase 2 Report (1996-1997), October 1997

    Describes the activities of the Brake Pad Partnership from September 1996 through September 1997.

    copper-brake
  124.    Chesapeake Bay Program, Chesapeake Bay Basin Toxics Loading and Release Inventory, printed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Chesapeake Bay Program, EPA 903-R-99-006, May 1999.

    Summarizes data available regarding the amounts of pollutants, including copper, released annually to Chesapeake Bay from point sources, urban storm water runoff, shipping and boating, and acid mine drainage. Copper is identified as a "Chesapeake Bay Toxic of Concern," a member of the highest priority group of pollutants in Chesapeake Bay.

    air, watershed, bay, deposition, copper-general, copper-toxicity
  125.    California Air Resources Board, Technical Support Division, Methodology for Estimating Emissions from On-Road Motor Vehicles, November 1996 (6 volumes).

    Explains the models used by the State of California to estimate vehicle-related air pollutant emissions. These models include estimates of particulate emissions from vehicle brakes, tires, and tailpipes (EMFAC7G, Volume II). Vehicle brake emissions estimates are based on outdated asbestos brake pad emissions data from Cha et al. (see #015). Models are updated regularly by the California Air Resources Board; the latest version is EMFAC2001, which is available on the Internet: http://arbis.arb.ca.gov/msei/msei.htm

    air, particle size distribution, brake pads
  126.    Brake Pad Partnership Project, Copper Use Monitoring Program Results for Model Years 1998, 1999, and 2000, December 14, 2001.

    Report of copper use in original equipment automotive friction materials (brake pads) for 1998, 1999, and 2000 model year passenger vehicles.Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/reference/library_archives/CuUseMonitoringProgramFinalReport.pdf

    copper-brake, brake pads
  127.    Schlautman, M. A. Progress Report for Disc Brake Wear Debris Characterization, prepared by Clemson University with funding from the City of Palo Alto, July 17, 2002

    Describes a reproducible method for determining the copper content of brake wear debris. Found no sample heterogeneity in brake wear debris for the lowest range of masses (0.5 to 10 milligrams) that could be practically weighted out using a conventional four decimal place balance.

    characterization, copper-brake, wear debris
  128.    Mahmood, R. J. Lead in Soils Near Highways, prepared by the Department of Civil Engineering, California State University at Sacramento, for the California Department of Transportation, undated.

    Summary of the issues regarding lead in soils near highways (short version of #129). Includes graphics showing lead concentrations by soil depth as a function of time (during years when lead was used in gasoline) and lead concentrations in surface soils at various distances upwind and downwind from a highway segment.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, analog
  129.    Mahmood, R. J. Review of Lead Contamination in Soils Near Highways, prepared by the Department of Civil Engineering, California State University at Sacramento, for the California Department of Transportation, CTSW-RT-96-005, 1997.

    Short report reviewing the sources of lead contamination of near-highway soils (lead in gasoline is the major urban source, with air deposition an important pathway), chemical forms of lead contamination, fate and bioavailability of lead in soil and water systems, and movement of lead in water.

    watershed, transport, sediments-road, chemistry, analog
  130.    Office of Water Programs, California State University at Sacramento, Caltrans Load Assessment Report, prepared for the California Department of Transportation, CTSW-RT-99-078, November 1999.

    Estimates total quantity of various pollutants (including copper) released from highways and other California Department of Transportation facilities into California surface waters. An enhanced interactive version of the report available on the Internet: http://stormwater.water-programs.com/Webctswpfinal/Indexfinal.htm

    watershed, copper-road
  131.    Brown and Caldwell, Street Sweeping Literature Review, prepared for the California Department of Transportation, CTSW-RT-97-033, July 1997.

    Contains individual summaries of articles describing the effectiveness and cost of street sweeping to remove particles from urban roads.Gives a few references to effectiveness of collection of small particles.

    sediments-road, particle size distribution
  132.    Wistrom, A. O.; Matsumoto, M. R. Literature Review, Highway Runoff: Contaminant Sources and Deposition Mechanisms, prepared by the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, for the California Department of Transportation, CTSW-RT-99-005, January 1999.

    General review of sources of a long list of highway runoff pollutants of concern, including copper. Mentions vehicle brake pads as a copper source. Reviews factors that might affect pollutant build-up and wash-off.

    watershed, copper-road
  133.    California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sampling and Analysis Plan, Caltrans Acceleration/Deceleration Study, CTSW-RT-00-037, December 2000.

    Plan for stormwater sampling study focusing on runoff from vehicle acceleration and deceleration traffic areas (at Border Checkpoints).Sampling sites and monitoring procedures (including analysis for copper) are described.

    watershed, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  134.    California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Caltrans Statewide Stormwater Runoff Characterization Study, Monitoring Season 2000-2001, CTSW-RT-01-015, July 2001

    Summary of statewide stormwater runoff sampling results from Caltrans facilities in California. Data include total and dissolved copper. Has data for highway sites, parking lots at park and ride facilities, and sites selected for the acceleration/deceleration study (see #133).Folder includes only Executive Summary, and Chapter 3, Statistical Analysis of Results.

    watershed, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  135.    California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Caltrans Tahoe Basin Stormwater Monitoring Program, Final Report, Monitoring Season 2000-2001, CTSW-RT-01-038, August 2001

    Chemical characterization of precipitation, runoff, and sediments in runoff from highways in the Lake Tahoe, California region. Includes detailed comparison of runoff data to precipitation data and to statewide highway runoff results. Looks at sediment particle size distributions and presents the concentration of copper and other metals within sediments in each particle size category.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road, dissolved, particulate, particle size distribution
  136.    California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Solids Transport and Deposition Study, Final Report (including August 2000 Addendum), CTSW-RT-99-024, June 1999

    Evaluation of solids associated with highway runoff. Included measurements of copper and other metals in runoff sediments. Sediment samples contained an average of 199 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of copper (individual results ranged from 2 to 9,330 mg/kg). Tested the sediments with standard "leachability" procedures (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] and California waste extraction test [WET]), finding some of the copper in a leachable form in most samples. Examined statistical correlations between metals levels in sediments and various highway and watershed design factors.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road
  137.    Rice, K. C.; Conko, K. M.; Hornberger, G. M. "Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic and Copper to Sediments in a Suburban Lake, Northern Virginia," Environmental Science & Technology, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 4962-4967

    Mass balance of total copper for a suburban lake in a densely populated area. Urban storm water runoff was the primary copper source (90% of copper, primarily from road runoff). Used measurements of copper leaching from watershed wood samples to estimate that wood preservatives accounted for about 4% of the copper entering the lake, despite the fact that the lake area has a relatively large amount of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood on its shore (in decks, docks, retaining walls, and pilings) and in its watershed.

    watershed, copper-general, copper-road, USGS
  138.    Kim, K. H.; Lee, H. S.; Youn, Y. H.; Yun, S. T.; Ro, C. U.; Oh, J. M. "Studies of Spatial Variabilities of Airborne Metals Across Four Different Land-Use Types," Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2002, Vol. 138, pp. 7-24

    Measured metals (Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Cr) concentrations in airborne particulates at four different land use sites in Won Ju city, Korea from 1991-1995. Compared results to other international data. Copper concentrations did not exhibit seasonal trends. Copper concentrations did not correlate well with other metals concentrations, except manganese. Copper concentrations were lowest in the grassland sampling site, highest at the residential sampling site, and intermediate at commercial and industrial sites.

    air, copper-general
  139.    Squire, S.; Scelfo, G. M.; Revenaugh, J.; Flegal, A. R. "decadal Trends of Silver and Lead Contamination in San Francisco Bay Surface Waters," Environmental Science & Technology, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 2379-2386

    Describes changes in sources of lead and silver to San Francisco Bay. Evaluates relationships of sediment lead and silver concentrations to water column dissolved concentrations. In South San Francisco Bay, sediment concentrations for both metals have declined, but lead water column concentrations in filtered samples have not declined while silver filtered water column concentrations did decline. Concludes that lead filtered water column sample concentrations have not declined because historic lead releases continue to wash from watersheds into the Bay and because lead is recycled between sediments and the water column in the Bay. Contrasts data for the lower South San Francisco Bay, where anthropogenic inputs of the two metals have decreased significantly to the North Bay, where anthropogenic inputs have remained relatively constant.

    watershed, bay, transport, fate, sediments-water, analog, dissolved, particulate
  140.    Dietrich, A. M.; Gallagher, D. L. "Fate and Environmental Impact of Pesticides in Plastic Mulch Production Runoff: Field and Laboratory Studies," Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 2002, Vol. 50, pp. 4409-4416

    Describes fate and toxicity of copper in storm water runoff. The source of the copper was a copper-containing pesticide applied to tomatoes.

    fate, copper-toxicity, dissolved, particulate
  141.    Blau, P. J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives, prepared for the U. S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, ORNL/TM-2001/64, August 2001

    Overview report describes brake pad formulation, the function of ingredients and additives, typical compositions, and test methods. Prepared as a resource report for the development of advanced brake materials for heavy-duty vehicles. Available on the Internet: www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/112956.pdf

    brake pads
  142.    Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G.; Hussein, F.; Hsu, J.; Deguzman, M.; Odion, Z.; Ilejay, Z.; Sy, F.; Petreas, M.; Simmons, B. "Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Fails to Extract Oxoanion-Forming Elements That are Extracted by Municipal Solid Waste Leachates," Environmental Science & Technology, 1998, Vol. 32, pp. 3825-3830

    Describes strengths and weaknesses of two standard metals leaching test procedures (Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure [TCLP] and Waste Extraction Test [WET]). Testing involved comparing extraction of various metals from solid samples, using the two standard test methods, the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and extractions with municipal solid waste landfill leachate. Both landfill leachate and WET generally extracted a higher proportion of the metals than TCLP. SPLP results were generally lower than TCLP results, reflecting the lack of a significant complexing agent in the SPLP solution.

    chemistry, characterization, copper-general
  143.    Zimmerman, S.; Alt, F.; Messerschmidt, J.; von Bohlen, A.; Taraschewski, H.; Sures, B. "Biological Availability of Traffic-Related Platinum-Group Elements (Palladium, Platinum, and Rhodium) and Other Metals to the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) in Water Containing Road Dust," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2002, Vol. 21, pp. 2713-2718

    Report of uptake and bioaccumulation of metals (silver, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and antimony) in road dust by zebra mussels. Copper uptake was significant as compared to controls—bioaccumulation factors ranged from 4.8 (tap water) to 6.5 (water with added humic acids). These were the highest bioaccumulation factors measured for any of the tested metals.

    sediments-road, characterization, copper-general, copper-road
  144.    Brake Pad Partnership Project, Copper Use Monitoring Program Results for Model Years 1998 - 2001, February 11, 2003.

    Report of copper use in original equipment automotive friction materials (brake pads) for 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 model year passenger vehicles. Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/reference/library_archives/CuUMP_Report01-03.pdf

    copper-brake, brake pads
  145.    Fairey, R.; Roberts, C.; Jacobi, M.; Lamerdin, S.; Clark, R.; Downing, J.; Long, E.; Hunt, J.; Anderson, B.; Newman, J.; Tjeerdema, R.; Stephenson, M.; Wilson, C. "Assessment of Sediment Toxicity and Chemical Concentrations in the San Diego Bay Region, California, USA," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1998, Vol. 17, pp. 1570-1581

    Identified widespread toxicity in San Diego Bay sediments that is attributed to copper, zinc, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. No single chemical or chemical group had a dominant role in contributing to the identified toxicity. Test methods involved Rhepoxynius abronius survival bioassays. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus development bioassays were performed on sediment pore water samples.

    bay, sediments-water, characterization, copper-toxicity
  146.    Cristina, C.; Sansalone, J. J. ""First Flush," Power Law and Particle Separation Diagrams for Urban Storm-Water Suspended Particulates," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2003, Vol. 129, pp. 298-307

    Thorough look at "first flush" particle wash off process for urban watershed particles from 2 to 75 microns in diameter. Equations describing wash off are presented and discussed.

    watershed, transport, model-water, particulate
  147.    Sorme, L.; Lagerkvist, R. "Sources of Heavy Metals in Urban Wastewater in Stockholm," The Science of the Total Environment, 2002, Vol. 298, pp. 131-145

    Inventory of copper sources in urban runoff and urban sewer system discharges. Careful calculations of total quantities of copper, zinc, nickel, mercury, cadmium, lead, and chromium. Copper mass balance was 110%--relatively good for this type of analysis. Detailed estimates of many urban copper sources in storm water runoff, including vehicle brakes. Brake copper release estimate was based primarily on another Swedish study (Westerlund, 1998; see below).

    watershed, copper-general, copper-brake, copper-road
  148.    Westerlund, K. G. (Stockholm Air Quality and Noise Analysis) Metal Emissions from Stockholm Traffic—Wear of Brake Linings, prepared for the Stockholm Environment and Health Protection Administration and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, April 2001

    Reports the metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc) content of selected original equipment and replacement vehicle brake pads. The study is intended to reflect the vehicle mix in Stockholm and thus may substantially differ from data for the U.S. vehicle fleet. Copper content in tested new passenger car brake pads ranged from 0.006% to 23.4%, with an average of 11.8%. In replacement passenger car brake pads, copper content ranged from 0.01% to 13.2%, with an average of 7.2%. For the two major truck types (Volvo and Scania), copper was 1.5% and 0.008% respectively (bus data were similar). Overall, 96% of the copper released from vehicle brakes was estimated to be released by passenger cars, with about equal contributions from cars with original equipment brake pads and cars with replacement brake pads. Available on the Internet: www.slb.mf.stockholm.se/slb/rapporter/pdf/metal_emissions2001.pdf

    copper-brake, wear debris, brake pads
  149.    Zhang, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Binkowski, F. S. "Simulation of Aerosol Dynamics: A Comparative Review of Algorithms Used in Air Quality Models," Aerosol Science and Technology, 1999, Vol. 31, pp. 487-514

    Figure 1 shows the effect of particle coagulation on the particle size distribution. Per one of the paper's authors (C. Seigneur), the data in the figure suggests that coagulation will probably not affect brake wear debris particle size distribution over time scales meaningful to wear debris deposition modeling.

    air, deposition, model-air, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  150.    Sternbeck, J.; Sjodin, A.; Andreasson, K. "Metal Emissions from Road Traffic and the Influence of Resuspension—Results from Two Tunnel Studies," Atmospheric Environment, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 4725-4744

    A Swedish study estimated metals emissions from vehicles, with the intent of (1) identifying metals typical for road traffic emissions, (2) determining emissions factors for the metals, and (3) investigating the factors controlling emissions factors. The study characterizes data for the vehicle mix in Sweden and thus may substantially differ from data for the U.S. vehicle fleet. Investigators collected data for metals content of air emitted from two vehicle tunnels. Most of the copper released from vehicles was attributed to vehicle brake pads. Similarly, most of the barium and antimony released from vehicles was attributed to vehicle brake pads. On the basis of differences in traffic characteristics in the two tunnels, the authors concluded that copper releases from heavy duty vehicle brake pads were relatively small. The authors propose a Cu:Sb ration of 4.6(±2.3 as a diagnostic criterion for brake wear particles.

    air, sediments-road, copper-brake, copper-road, brake pads
  151.    Schlautman, M. A. Progress Report for Disc Brake Wear Debris Characterization—Phase 2, prepared by Clemson University with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the City of Palo Alto, and the Bay Area Stormwater Management Agencies Association, March 18, 2003.

    Conducted several experiments to characterize vehicle brake wear debris. The results obtained in this study may not be characteristic of all wear debris generated from Cu-containing brake pads, as the brake wear debris used in experiments originated from only one brake pad formulation. Extracted copper from brake wear debris using two standard leaching procedures (toxicity characteristic leachate procedure [TCLP] and California waste extraction test [WET]). Found that the extent of Cu leaching after five hours was generally complete, with extraction efficiencies typically approaching 80% of the total initial copper present. Leaching experiments using aqueous solutions with different solution chemistry conditions (atmosphere-equilibrated water, pH 3 solution, pH 5 solution) demonstrated that in the absence of organic ligands, solution pH can be an important factor in determining the extraction efficiency of Cu from brake wear debris. Effects of brake wear debris sample heterogeneity appear to be minor based on observed leaching rates using individually-determined versus average total Cu contents. However, variability in the overall measurement of total Cu in the brake wear debris suggests that the most precise methodology would be to close a mass balance for each sample, rather than using an overall average percent copper value. Brake wear debris has a much higher specific surface area (31 square meters per gram) than the standard copper-containing samples tested (less than 1.5 square meters per gram), which may help explain its relatively rapid leaching of Cu in the various tests conducted.

    characterization, copper-brake, wear debris
  152.    Sanders, P. G.; Dalka, T. M.; Xu, N.; Maricq, M. M.; Basch, R. H. (Ford Research Laboratory) "Brake Dynamometer Measurement of Airborne Brake Wear Debris," SAE Technical Paper Series 2002-01-1280, 2002

    Documents generation of vehicle brake wear debris on a dynamometer. Provides distribution of emissions (airborne, hardware, road, and wheel). (Does not include particle size distribution data.) Available for purchase on the Internet: www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_TYP=PAPER&PROD_CD=2002-01-1280

    copper-brake, wear debris, characterization
  153.    Trainor, J.; Duncan, T., Mangan, R. "Disc Brake Wear Debris Generation and Collection," SAE Technical Paper Series 02 BRAKE-43, 2002

    Describes the reproducible and practical dynamometer-based procedure for generating and collecting vehicle disc brake wear debris. This paper is a more formal version of #016, but does not include the wear debris characterization information. Available for purchase on the Internet: www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_TYP=PAPER&PROD_CD=2002-01-2595

    copper-brake, wear debris, brake pads
  154.    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Method 1311, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure," in Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Wastes, Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846 On-Line, (www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/main.htm) obtained June 30, 2003

    The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is a standard U.S. EPA method designed to determine the mobility of both organic and inorganic analytes present in liquid, solid, and multiphasic wastes. This is one of the test methods used to characterize brake wear debris (see #151). Available on the Internet: www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/pdfs/1311.pdf

    chemistry, characterization
  155.    California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Division 4.5, Chapter 11, Article 3, Chapter 5, Appendix II, "Waste Extraction Test" Procedure, 1991

    The Waste Extraction Test (WET) is a standard California method designed to determine the extractability of pollutants in wastes and other materials. This is one of the test methods used to characterize brake wear debris (see #151). Available on the Internet, see http://ccr.oal.ca.gov/

    chemistry, characterization
  156.    Griscom, S. B.; Fisher, N. S. "Uptake of Dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co by the Clam, Macoma balthica: Relative Importance of Overlying Water, Oxic Pore Water, and Burrow Water," Environmental Science & Technology, 2002, Vol. 36, pp. 2471-2478

    Describes metals uptake by a type of clams that are commonly used as test species in San Francisco Bay. Focuses on 3 metals (silver, cadmium, and cobalt). The clams take up metals from overlying water, oxic pore water, and burrow water, but uptake rates from each type of water differ for the 3 metals.

    bay, sediments-water, chemistry, characterization, analog, dissolved, particulate
  157.    California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Caltrans Statewide Stormwater Runoff Characterization Study, Monitoring Season 2001-2002, CTSW-RT-02-022, July 2002.

    Summary of statewide stormwater runoff sampling results from Caltrans facilities in California. Data include total and dissolved copper. Has data for highway sites, parking lots at park and ride facilities, and sites selected for the acceleration/deceleration study (see #133). Folder includes only Executive Summary. The entire report is available on the Internet: see www.dot.ca.gov/hq/env/stormwater/special/index.htm.

    watershed, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  158.    Marple, V. A.; Rubow, K. L.; Behm, S. M. "A Microorfice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI): Description, Calibration, and Use," Aerosol Science and Technology, 1991, Vol. 14, pp. 434-446

    Summarizes the design and particle separation properties of the MOUDI method of aerodynamic particle size distribution measurement.

    air, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  159.    Harrison, R. M.; Tilling, R.; Callen Romero, M. S.; Harrad, S.; Jarvis, K. "A Study of Trace Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Roadside Environment," Atmospheric Environment, 2003, Vol. 37, pp. 2391-2402

    Exploration of the anthropogenic emissions of metals near roadsides. Found copper, zinc, molybdenum, barium, and lead showed correlations indicative of a traffic source. Data support the conclusion that the enrichment of most trace elements in roadside aerosol derives from vehicle wear products rather than exhaust emissions, for which organic compounds are likely to prove better source tracers.

    air, watershed, deposition, sediments-road, copper-road
  160.    Wong, K. M.; Strecker, E. W.; Stenstrom, M. K. "GIS to Estimate Storm-Water Pollutant Mass Loadings," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1997, Vol. 123, No. 8, pp. 737-745

    Annual loadings to Santa Monica Bay were estimated using an empirical model and GIS analysis of land uses. Estimated copper loads were 0.0002 metric tons/hectare/year for most urban land uses and 0.00003 metric tons/hectare/year for "open" areas.

    watershed, copper-general, model-water
  161.    Ward, N. I.; Brooks, R. R.; Roberts E.; Boswell, C. R. "Heavy-Metal Pollution from Automotive Emissions and Its Effect on Roadside Soils and Pasture Species in New Zealand," Environmental Science & Technology, 1977, Vol. 11, No. 9, pp. 917-920

    Copper, lead, nickel, and zinc were measured in surface soils (0-1 cm), soil cores, and plants in the median strip of the Auckland motorway in New Zealand. All metals were significantly higher in surface soils and vegetation than in background areas away from the road. Significant correlation was found between surface soil concentrations and traffic densities. Concentrations decreased with depth in soil.

    watershed, deposition, sediments-road, copper-road
  162.    Kayhanian, M.; Singh, A.; Suverkropp, C.; Borroum, S. "Impact of Annual Average Daily Traffic on Highway Runoff Pollutant Concentrations," Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2003, Vol. 129, No. 11, pp. 975-990

    Has summary of 1997-2001 Caltrans monitoring pollutant concentrations. No linear correlation was found between highway runoff pollutant event mean concentrations and annual average daily traffic. Annual average daily traffic has an influence on most highway runoff constituent concentrations, in conjunction with factors association with watershed characteristics and pollutant build-up and wash off. The other factors shown to influence the accumulation of pollutants on highways were antecedent dry period, drainage area, maximum rain intensity, and land use.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road
  163.    Zschau, T.; Getty, S.; Gries, C.; Ameron, Y.; Zambrano, A.; Nash III, T. H. "Historical and Current Atmospheric Deposition to the Epilithic Lichen Xanthoparmelia in Maricopa County, Arizona," Environmental Pollution, 2003, Vol. 125, pp. 21-30

    Measured spatial patterns of deposition of trace elements—including copper—with lichen. Urbanized regions (i.e., greater Phoenix) exhibited elevated concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium. Note this state is the major source of the nation's copper. Copper mining has occurred within the studied county, and smelting in adjacent counties. Copper levels in lichens were associated with mining and traffic.

    air, deposition, copper-general, copper-road
  164.    Bradford, G. R.; Chang, A. C.; Page, A. L.; Bakhtar, D.; Frampton, J. A.; Wright, H. Background Concentrations of Trace Metals and Major Elements in California Soils, Special Report, Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, University of California, 1996

    Background total concentrations of trace elements in 50 benchmark California soils representing 22 soil series were determined. The mean for total copper was 28.7 mg/kg, with a range from 9.1 to 96.4 mg/kg. Samples from Northern California were "often higher" in copper, attributed to predominance of volcanic and ultramafic rocks (including serpentine).

    watershed, copper-general
  165.    Davis, A. P.; Shokouhian, M.; Shubei, N. "Loading Estimates of Lead, Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc in Urban Runoff from Specific Sources," Chemosphere 2001, Vol. 44, pp. 997-1009

    Urban stormwater mass balances for copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc were calculated with methods that combine actual pollutant sources and various pollutant conveyances. Synthetic rain was sprayed on various building siding and automotive materials, and copper concentrations in runoff were determined. Runoff from actual rainfall on various roofs was also measured. Copper "sources" estimated were roofs, building siding, brake pads, tires, oil, and wet and dry air deposition. Since the exterior surfaces examined did not contain copper, they are unlikely to be the primary source of the measured copper (copper roofs were not examined). The study assumes that the material collected on vehicle wheels is exclusively brake pad wear debris, rather than a mixture of debris from road and vehicle sources.

    air, watershed, deposition, copper-general, copper-brake
  166.    Gee, A. K; Bruland, K. W. "Tracing Ni, Cu, and Zn Kinetics and Equilibrium Partitioning Between Dissolved and Particulate Phases in South San Francisco Bay, California, Using Stable Isotopes and High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2002, Vol. 66, No. 17, pp. 3063-3083

    Exchange kinetics of metals between dissolved and particulate phases were studied in laboratory samples of South San Francisco Bay water. The initial dissolved fraction (Kd) for copper was 7,600 L/kg. Forward and backward sorption rate constants were 0.07 and 0.12 L/day, respectively, suggesting equilibrium should be reached "on the order of three weeks", with a lower South San Francisco Bay.

    bay, fate, chemistry, copper-general, dissolved, particulate, USGS, lower South San Francisco Bay
  167.    Heath, B. A.; Maughan, J. A.; Morrison, A. A.; Eastwood, I. W.; Drew, I. B.; Lofkin, M. "The Influence of Wooded Shelterbelts on the Deposition of Copper, Lead, and Zinc at Shakerkey Mere, Cheshire, England," Science of the Total Environment, 1999, Vol. 235, pp. 415-417

    Soils and vegetation along transects up to 100 meters from motorway M6 were monitored for copper, lead, and zinc. In the absence of shelterbelts, deposition patterns were consistent with prevailing wind direction. In transects with shelterbelts, zones of high metal concentration corresponded with the locations of trees.

    air, deposition, sediments-road, copper-road
  168.    Hewitt, C. N.; Rashed, M. B. "The Deposition of Selected Pollutants Adjacent to a Major Rural Highway," Atmospheric Environment, 1991, Vol. 25A, No. 5/6, pp. 979-983

    Bulk deposition (wet & dry) and dry deposition fluxes and air concentrations of copper, lead, cadmium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were measured at various distances from an English road (the M6 motorway) on two sampling transects in 1986 and 1987. Bulk deposition of copper ranged from 1.08±0.88 mg/m2/week at the "hard shoulder" to the "regional background value of 0.08±0.44 mg/m2/week at 10 meters and beyond". The fraction of the metal in solution (based on 0.45 um filter) increased with distance, from <20% at the shoulder, to >80% at 50 meters. Air concentrations of copper declined from 69 ng/m3 at the road to 17 ng/m3 at 50 meters from the road. Estimated dry deposition velocities for atmospheric copper declined from 0.79 cm/s at the road to 0.14 cm/s at 50 meters.

    air, deposition, copper-road
  169.    Legret, M.; Pagotto, C. "Evaluation of Pollutant Loadings in the Runoff Waters from a Major Rural Highway," Science of the Total Environment, 1999, Vol. 235, pp. 143-150

    Pavement runoff from French roadway was studied. Measured lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc. Estimated mass balances in runoff. Sources estimated included brake pads, tires, gasoline, deicing agents, galvanized safety fences, and air deposition. Copper in unfiltered runoff ranged from 11-146 µg/L, with mean of 45 µg/L. In filtered (0.45 micron filter) runoff, range was 7.3-139, with mean of 25 µg/L. Roadway sediments had 20-260 mg/kg copper, with mean of 59 mg/kg. Annual emissions from brake pad wear were estimated to be 20 mg brake wear debris/vehicle/km/yr for cars. Annual copper load removed by drainage water was estimated as 0.29 kg/km, or 2% of estimated copper emissions, which was about 14.2 kg/km.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road, dissolved, particulate
  170.    Sutherland, R. A.; Tack, P. M. G.; Tolosa, C. A.; Verloo, M. G. "Metal Extraction from Road Sediment Using Different Strength Reagents: Impact on Anthropogenic Contaminant Signals," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2001, Vol. 71, pp. 221-242

    Road sediment from 13 randomly selected curbside locations in an urban, non-industrial watershed and soil from 10 "background" locations (0-2.5 cm depth) were analyzed for metals and compared with each other. Road sediment showed enrichment in copper, lead and zinc; "significantly exceeded background soil concentrations", despite weekly road sweeping. Mean total copper in road sediment was 167 mg/kg. The median Concentration Enrichment Ratio for copper was 5.4.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road
  171.    Cannon, H. L; Bowles, J. M. "Contamination of Vegetation by Tetraethyl Lead," Science, 1962, Vol. 137, pp. 765-766

    Roadside grasses in Denver were collected and measured for lead content along transects out from two major highways. Concentrations consistently decreased with distance from the roads, with elevated concentrations (greater than 50 ppm) for 500 feet downwind from the highways.

    watershed, deposition, sediments-road, analog, USGS
  172.    Harrison, R. M.; Johnston, W. R. "Deposition Fluxes of Lead, Cadmium, Copper and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) on the Verges of a Major Highway," Science of the Total Environment, 1985, Vol. 46, pp. 121-135.

    Bulk deposition (wet & dry) fluxes of copper, lead, cadmium, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were measured at various distances (3.8 to 220 meters) from an English road (the M6 motorway) on 2 transects over 21 months. Results for both transects were very similar, with copper flux of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/square meter/week adjacent to the road, decreasing rapidly to background (about 0.1 mg/square meter/week) by 20 meters from the road (for other pollutants, concentrations reached background from 20 to 40 meters from the road).

    air, deposition, sediments-road, copper-road
  173.    Waschbusch, R. J., Data and Methods of a 1999-2000 Street Sweeping Study on an Urban Freeway in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USGS Open File Report 03-93, 2003

    Attempted to evaluate street sweeping effectiveness in removing pollutants from road runoff. In runoff, measured COD, ammonia, nitrates, phosphorous, suspended solids, dissolved solids, chloride, calcium, magnesium, lead, copper (total and dissolved) and zinc (total and dissolved). Measured sediment particle size distribution. Study design ultimately precluded determination of the effectiveness of the tested street sweepers. Available on the Internet: http://wi.water.usgs.gov/pubs/ofr-03-93/ofr-03-93.pdf.

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road, dissolved, particulate, USGS
  174.    Martinelli, T. J.; Waschbusch, R.; Bannerman, R.; Wisner, A. Pollutant Loading to Stormwater Runoff from Highways: The Impact of a Freeway Sweeping Program, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Report No. WI-11-01, June 2002

    Evaluation of street sweeping effectiveness in removing pollutants from road runoff. Showed pavement sediment reduction after street sweeping, but study limitations precluded evaluation of the effects of the street sweeper on pollutant level sin runoff. Available on the Internet: www.dot.wisconsin.gov/library/research/docs/finalreports/45-82sweeping-f.pdf

    watershed, sediments-road, copper-road
  175.    Paquin, P. R.; Farley, K.; Santore, R. C.; Kavvadas, C. D.; Mooney, K. G.; Winfield, R. P.; Wu, K-B.; Di Toro, D. M. Metals in Aquatic Systems: A Review of Exposure, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Models, Pensacola, Florida: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003

    Overview of aquatic fate and transport models, chemical equilibrium models, and bioaccumulation and toxicity models for metals in the environment.

    bay, fate, chemistry, copper-general, copper-toxicity, model-water
  176.    Parametrix Inc., Meridian Environment Inc., D-Squared A-Consulting Diffuse Sources of Environmental Copper in the United States, New York: Copper Development Association, Inc. and International Copper Association, Ltd., 2003

    The industry associations for copper manufacturers have compiled information about environmental copper releases. This report summarizes some of the relevant literature on copper releases and provides estimates of release rates from certain sources. Copper sources and conveyances considered include soil, sea water, biosolids and fertilizer, roofs and gutters, pipes and plumbing, roadways and vehicles, fuel, paint, wood preservatives, landfills, and pesticides. The book also provides some data on environmental copper levels in various media.

    copper-general, copper-brake, copper-road
  177.    Brake Pad Partnership Project, Copper Use Monitoring Program Results for Model Years 1998 - 2002, January 22, 2004.

    Report of copper use in original equipment automotive friction materials (brake pads) for 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 model year passenger vehicles.Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/pdfs/CuUMPFinalReport.pdf

    copper-brake, brake pads
  178.    Christoforou, C.; Schlautman, M., Characterization of Airborne Brake Wear Debris, Final Work Plan, prepared by Clemson University for the Brake Pad Partnership, May 7, 2004

    Work plan for the physical characterization of brake pad wear debris. The primary measurement will be of the aerodynamic particle size diameter, using an in-line micro orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) during generation of a representative sample of brake pad wear debris on a brake dynamometer. Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/pdfs/ADPSD%20Final%20Work%20Plan%2005-07-04.pdf

    air, chemistry, characterization, copper-brake, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, brake pads
  179.    Pun, B.; Seigneur, C., Air Deposition Modeling for the Environmental Fate and Transport of Copper from Vehicle Brake Pad Wear Debris, Work Plan, prepared by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. for the Brake Pad Partnership, January 2004

    Work plan for air deposition modeling of the transport of copper in vehicle brake pad wear debris. The modeling will cover the air portion of environmental transport from the point of release (from the vehicle) or re-release (from roads) to deposition in the study watershed. Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/reference/library_archives/AER_BPP_FinalWorkPlan01-30-04.pdf

    air, deposition, transport, copper-brake, copper-road, model-air, Castro Valley, wear debris, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution, brake pads
  180.    Yee, D., 2004 Sampling and Analysis Plan: Brake Pad Partnership Castro Valley Atmospheric Deposition Study, prepared by the San Francisco Estuary Institute for the Brake Pad Partnership, January 6, 2004

    Work plan for air deposition monitoring for copper and other metals in the Castro Valley watershed. The monitoring is designed to provide data to reality-check the air deposition modeling (see #179). Available on the Internet: www.suscon.org/brakepad/pdfs/SFEI%20Air%20Dep%20WkPln-SAP%2002-04.pdf

    air, deposition, copper-general, Castro Valley
  181.    Singh, M.; Misra, C.; Sioutas, C. "Field Evaluation of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)." Atmospheric Environment, 2003, Vol. 37, pp. 4781-4793

    A field evaluation was conducted to compare the performance of four particle size measurement devices: a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) in Los Angeles and Claremont, California. Demonstrates capabilities of MOUDI to measure particle sizes in the range of brake pad wear debris particle sizes.

    air, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  182.    Sanders, P. G.; Xu, N.; Dalka, T. M.; Maricq, M. M., "Airborne Brake Wear Debris: Size Distributions, Composition, and a Comparison of Dynamometer and Vehicle Tests," Environmental Science & Technology, 2003, Vol. 37, pp. 4060-4069

    Particle size distributions of vehicle brake wear debris are measured with two methods: electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The mass mean aerodynamic diameter of brake wear debris was measured to be 6 microns. The wear rates measured were material dependent, both in number and mass of particles, with 3-4 times higher emissions observed from the low metallic linings as compared to the semi-metallic and non-asbestos organic brake pads. Wind tunnel and test track measurements were conducted; these showed particle emissions correlating with braking events. Approximately 50% of the wear debris was measured to be released to the air from test vehicle. Elemental analysis of the wear debris reveals a consistent presence of the elements iron, copper, and barium. See the related preliminary publication, #152

    air, copper-brake, wear debris, characterization, aerodynamic diameter, particle size distribution
  183.    Baldwin, D. H.; Sandahl, J. F.; Labenia, J. S.; Scholz, N. L., "Sublethal Effects of Copper on Coho Salmon: Impacts on Nonoverlapping Receptor Pathways in the Peripheral Olfactory Nervous System," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2003, Vol. 22, pp. 2266-2274

    The effects of copper on the sensory physiology of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were evaluated. Copper at concentrations from 2.3-20.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L) inhibited the olfactory response (sense of smell) of the juvenile coho salmon. Effects were dose-dependent and they were not influenced by water hardness. These data indicate that copper is broadly toxic to the salmon olfactory nervous system. Consequently, short-term influxes of copper to surface waters may interfere with olfactory-mediated behaviors that are critical for the survival and migratory success of wild salmonids.

    copper-general, copper-toxicity
  184.    Lopes, I.; Baird, D. J.; Ribeiro, R., "Avoidance of Copper Contamination by Field Populations of Daphnia Longispina," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2004, Vol. 23, pp. 1702-1708

    A test chamber with a copper concentration gradient was used to measure the copper concentrations avoided by a small aquatic test organism (the cladoceran Daphnia longispina). The organisms showed significant avoidance to copper when exposed to a gradient from 3 to 87 micrograms per liter (µg/L). These data suggest that sensitive aquatic species may avoid elevated copper concentrations by moving away from portions of ecosystems containing elevated copper concentrations.

    copper-general, copper-toxicity
  185.    Carleton, J. N.; Cocca, P. A., "Using HSPF to Model Pollutant Runoff in an Urban Watershed," AWRA Spring Specialty Conference, Geographic Information Systems and Water Resources III, Nashville, Tennessee, May 17-19, 2004

    Demonstrates the use of the U.S. EPA watershed model HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to evaluate and to simulate urban copper fate and transport in stormwater. HSPF was calibrated using an existing hydrologic and water column monitoring data set from Castro Valley. The watershed was automatically delineated from 30 meter digital elevation model data and the national hydrography dataset using routines in EPA's BASINS platform. The parameter estimation software PEST was used to select best-fit model parameters in a simultaneous calibration for stream hydrology, suspended sediment, and water column total copper. Preliminary results suggest an increase in copper deposition rate to the watershed has occurred in the last few years, roughly consistent with documented increases in brake pad copper content.

    watershed, transport, fate, copper-general, copper-brake, model-water, Castro Valley
  186.    Tom-Petersen, A.; Hansen, H. C. B.; Nybroe, O.; "Time and Moisture Effects on Total and Bioavailable Copper in Soil Water Extracts," Journal of Environmental Quality, 2004, Vol. 33, p. 505-512

    Found that time and moisture affected copper water extractability and bioavailability from soil. In studies of copper-spiked soils incubated for up to 200 days, the water extractability of the copper decreased to between 32 and 40% of initial values. The bioavailability of the copper that was extracted (determined on the basis of an in vitro assay employing a copper-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens reporter strain) tended to increase as a function of incubation time. Results suggest that both time ("aging effects") and moisture effects should be considered when making predictions concerning possible long-term effects of copper in soil environment.

    fate, characterization, copper-general
  187.    Zereini, F.; Alt, F.; Messerschmidt, J.; Wiseman, C.; Feldmann, I., Von Bohlen, A.; Müller, J.; Liebl, K.; Puttmann,W. "Concentration and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Urban Airborne Particulate Matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany,"Environmental Science and Technology, 2005, Vol. 39, pp. 2983-2989.

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in airborne dust collected at three sites with different traffic densities from August 2001 to July 2002 in the Frankfurt am Main area. Bulk samples of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <22 µm were collected on cellulose nitrate filters using air filtration devices. Fractionated samples of PM with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <10 µm were collected using an eight-stage Andersen impactor. Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Zn, V, As, Sb, Cu, Cr, Co, and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry, Pt and Rh were determined by adsorptive voltammetry, and Pd was determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results show that the highest airborne heavy metal concentrations occurred at the main street with a large volume of traffic. With the exception of Co, V, Ce, and Mn, the heavy metals had an elevated enrichment factor compared to their concentrations in the continental crust. The main street site was especially contaminated with Sb, Zn, Cu, V, and Ni. Motor vehicles are the likely source of emissions. With the exception of Cr, Cu, and Zn, most of the airborne heavy metal concentrations determined for impactor samples deviate slightly from the results for total airborne dust. Heavy metal particle size distributions can be divided into three groups. For metals such as As, Cd, Pb, and V, the main fraction can be found in fine particles with a diameter of <2.1 µm, whereas Ce, Cr, Co, and Ni occur mainly in coarse particles with a diameter of >2.1 µm. Cu, Mn, Sb, Zn, Pt, Pd, and Rh occur in high concentrations in the medium range of the impactor stages (particle diameters of 1.1-4.7 µm). Metal concentrations in fine dust particles are needed to assess the human health risks of their inhalation.

    copper-brake, copper-road, sediments-road, wear debris, particle size distribution, particulate, air
  188.    Sandahl, J.F.; Baldwin, D.H.; Jenkins, J.J.; Scholz, N.L. "Odor-Evoked Field Potentials as Indicators of Sublethal Neurotoxicity in Juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Exposed To Copper, Chlorpyrifos, Or Esfenvalerate," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2004, Vol. 61, pp. 404-413.

    The sublethal effects of three different pesticides (a metal, organophosphate, and pyrethroid) on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were evaluated using paired electrophysiological recordings from the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb. Animals were exposed to copper (5-20 µg ·L-1), chlorpyrifos (0.625-2.5 µg ·L-1), or esfenvalerate (0.05-0.20 µg ·L-1) for 7 days. Sublethal neurotoxicity was examined by recording odor-evoked field potentials from the sensory epithelium and olfactory forebrain using two natural odorants (taurocholic acid or L-serine). Copper and chlorpyrifos decreased the amplitudes of the epithelial and bulbar responses to both odorants in a concentration-dependent manner. Benchmark concentrations for a 20% loss of sensory function were 4.4 µg ·L-1for copper and 0.72 µg ·L-1for chlorpyrifos. Esfenvalerate did not affect the amplitude of odor-evoked field potentials. However, in the olfactory bulbs of coho exposed to 0.2 µg esfenvalerate ·L-1, L-serine evoked distinct and irregular bursts of postsynaptic activity in the olfactory bulb, possibly indicating sublethal excitotoxicity to central networks. Collectively, these data indicate that periodic, non-point source contamination of salmon habitats with current-use pesticides could interfere with olfactory function and, by extension, olfactory-mediated behaviors that are important for the survival and migration of salmonids.

    copper- toxicity, analog
  189.    Mosleh, M.; Blau, P.J.; Dumitrescu, D. "Characteristics and Morphology of Wear Particles from Laboratory Testing of Disk Brake Materials,"Wear, 2004, Vol. 256, pp. 1128-1134.

    The geometrical characteristics and morphology of wear particles generated from brake materials are important for environmental and tribological reasons. Low- and high-speed, pin-on-disk friction and wear testing of a commercial truck brake pad material against cast iron was conducted in which wear debris was collected. The sliding speed was held constant either at 0.275 or at 5m/s, and the nominal contact pressure was varied between 0.125 and 1.25 MPa in room temperature air. In low-speed experiments, some tests were conducted with the pin in continuous sliding contact and others in which the pin specimen was raised and lowered periodically. Laser scattering examination of wear debris revealed two distinct peaks in the plot of frequency versus the mean particle size. The first peak occurs around 350 nm and does not vary with respect to the pressure and the sliding speed. The location of the second peak varies between 2 and 15 µm, depending on the pressure and the sliding speed. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of wear particles revealed particles having a high concentration of carbon, silicon, aluminum, iron, oxygen, molybdenum, and sulfur. It was also found that the continuity or discontinuity of sliding contact affects the size distribution of wear particles. In general, when the motion was discontinuous, as is the case in a repeated braking action, smaller wear particles are generated.

    wear debris, brake pads, particle size distribution, characterization, aerodynamic diameter
  190.    Lu , X.Q.; Werner, I.; Young, T.M. "Geochemistry and Bioavailability of Metals in Sediments from Northern San Francisco Bay,"Environment International, 2005, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 593-602.

    In this study, metals (Be, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb and Hg) in the fine-grained fraction (<63 µm) from 12 sites at different locations in northern San Francisco Bay over a year period from March 2000 to March 2001 were analyzed after acid extraction. The results showed that metal concentrations in the sediments varied from site to site, whereas some of them were found elevated with respect to the sediment of Tomales Bay, CA, which has little contamination history, indicating an enrichment of the metals in the sediment samples analyzed. Sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation evaluation by a clam species, Macoma nasuta, exposed to the sediment samples collected from the six sampling sites was carried out. The results showed that the sediment samples tested significantly reduced clam survival. Toxicity of the sediments to the clam was, in part, related to elevated metal concentrations in the sediments. In order to examine geochemistry of the metals and to understand potential correlations between metal concentrations and geochemical matrix elements of the sediments, bioavailability and toxicity of the metals, detailed analysis of metal concentrations associated with total organic carbon and the Fe-oxy-hydroxides in the sediment samples was performed. The analysis showed that sediment geochemistry appeared to influence metal bioavailability and may have important impacts on the toxicity of these metals to the clam.

    chemistry; copper-general; San Francisco Bay; sediments-water
  191.    Lough, G. C.; Schauer, J. J.; Park, J-S; Shafer M. M.; DeMinter, J. T.; Weinstein, J.P. "Emissions of Metals Associated with Motor Vehicle Roadways" Environmental Science and Technology, 2005, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 826-836.

    Emissions of metals and other particle-phase species from on-road motor vehicles were measured in two tunnels in Milwaukee, WI during the summer of 2000 and winter of 2001. Emission factors were calculated from measurements of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particulate matter at tunnel entrances and exits, and effects of fleet composition and season were investigated. Cascade impactors (MOUDI) were used to obtain size-resolved metal emission rates. Metals were quantified with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PM10 emission rates ranged from 38.7 to 201 mg km-1 and were composed mainly of organic carbon (OC, 30%), inorganic ions (sulfate, chloride, nitrate, ammonium, 20%), metals (19%), and elemental carbon (EC, 9.3%). PM10 metal emissions were dominated by crustal elements Si, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, and K, and elements associated with tailpipe emissions and brake and tire wear, including Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, and S. Metals emitted in PM2.5 were lower (11.6% of mass). Resuspension of roadway dust was dependent on weather and road surface conditions, and increased emissions were related to higher traffic volumes and fractions of heavy trucks. Emission of noble metals from catalytic converters appeared to be impacted by the presence of older vehicles. Elements related to brake wear were impacted by enriched road dust resuspension, but correlations between these elements in PM2.5 indicate that direct brake wear emissions are also important. A submicrometer particle mode was observed in the emissions of Pb, Ca, Fe, and Cu.

    copper-brake, copper-road, sediments-road, wear debris,particle size distribution, particulate, air
  192.    Hingston, J.A.; Murphy, R.J.; Lester J.N. "Monitoring Losses of Copper Based Wood Preservatives in the Thames Estuary," Environmental Pollution, 2006, Vol. 143, pp. 367-375.

    Field trials were conducted at two sites in the Thames estuary to monitor losses of copper, chromium and arsenic from wood preservative treated timbers of varying sizes and treatment regimes. Results indicated that leaching tests conducted under standard laboratory conditions might overestimate losses compared to losses resulting from real environmental exposures. Amine copper treated wood was noted to leach higher levels of copper compared to chromated copper arsenate treated wood, and was therefore considered an inappropriate replacement biocide for fresh and marine construction purposes on this basis. Increases in copper concentrations in the outer sections of amine copper treated posts may have represented re- distribution of this component in this timber. No accumulation of metals was found in sediments surrounding field trial posts.

    copper-general; copper-sources
  193.    Birmili, W.; Allen, A. G.; Bary, F.; Harrison, R. M. "Trace Metal Concentrations and Water Solubility in Size-Fractionated Atmospheric Particles and Influence of Road Traffic," Environmental Science and Technology, 2006, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 1144-1153.

    The abundance and the behavior of metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, Pt, Hg, and Pb) and ions (Na+ K+ Mg2+ Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), and oxalate) in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied in the U. K. and Ireland at four observation sites simulating extreme degrees of vehicular-traffic influence in the environment. Trace metals in urban PM showed distinct types of size-fractionated behavior depending on the particle sources from which they originate. In coarse PM (1.5 < Dp < 3.0 microm) the concentrations of copper, barium, and iron correlated closely across over 2 orders of magnitude in urban air, which is seen as evidence that major portions of transition metals (Cu, Ba, Fe, and Mn) are released through abrasive vehicular emissions, particularly the wear of brake linings. Further results are strongly indicative of a decoupling of coarse iron and calcium, the former arising predominantly from vehicles, the latter from soil resuspension. In fine PM (Dp < 0.5 microm), several combustion and secondary sources of particulates were identified, but these were much less unique in terms of elemental fingerprints. An analysis of the water solubility of trace metals yielded that solubility varies considerably with element and, to a lesser extent, with particle size. Notable differences were found to the elemental water solubilities determined in previous work, partially explained by differences in extraction procedures.

    air, copper-brake, copper-road, particulate, wear debris
  194.    Baldwin D.H.; Sandahl J.F.; Labenia J.S.; Scholz N.L. "Sublethal Effects of Copper on Coho Salmon: Impacts on Nonoverlapping Receptor Pathways in the Peripheral Olfactory Nervous System," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2003, Vol. 22, No.10, pp. 2266-2274.

    The sublethal effects of copper on the sensory physiology of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were evaluated. In vivo field potential recordings from the olfactory epithelium (electro-olfactograms) were used to measure the impacts of copper on the responses of olfactory receptor neurons to natural odorants (L-serine and taurocholic acid) and an odorant mixture (L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, L-leucine, and L-serine) over a range of stimulus concentrations. Increases in copper impaired the neurophysiological response to all odorants within 10 min of exposure. The inhibitory effects of copper (1.0-20.0 micrograms/L) were dose-dependent and they were not influenced by water hardness. Toxicity thresholds for the different receptor pathways were determined by using the benchmark dose method and found to be similar (a 2.3-3.0 micrograms/L increase in total dissolved copper over background). Collectively, examination of these data indicates that copper is broadly toxic to the salmon olfactory nervous system. Consequently, short-term influxes of copper to surface waters may interfere with olfactory-mediated behaviors that are critical for the survival and migratory success of wild salmonids.

    copper-toxicity, analog
  195.    Adachi, K.; Tainosho, Y. "Single Particle Characterization of Size-Fractionated Road Sediments," Applied Geochemistry, 2005, Vol. 20, pp. 849-859.

    The relationship between particle distributions and chemical compositions of road sediments were investigated in Kobe, Japan. Road sediments are significant pollutants in urban areas, and their toxicity differs according to particle size. In the present study, the authors analyzed the distributions of particle size, chemical composition and particle type among size-fractionated road sediments. Road sediment samples were collected from road medians and street gutters. Chemical compositions of about 13,000 individual road sediment particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. They were classified into 7 types by cluster analysis, and their possible sources were estimated. The particle type distributions showed some relationships with the chemical composition distributions. This study showed that the chemical composition distributions among the road sediments were typical for each element in relation to the particle type distributions.

    particle size distribution, sediments-road, chemistry
  196.    Moran, K.D. Copper Sources in Urban Runoff and Shoreline Activities, Report Prepared for Clean Estuary Partnership, TDC Environmental, 2004.

    The purpose of this report is to summarize information on the sources of copper that is carried to San Francisco Bay in urban runoff and copper that is released directly into the Bay from shoreline activities. This report: provides estimates of the amount of copper released to San Francisco Bay from each source; estimates the relative degree of uncertainty in each copper release estimate and lists the sources of uncertainty for each estimate; reviews available control measures for each copper source, providing control measure effectiveness information to the extent data are available; identifies feasible control measures for copper sources in urban runoff and shoreline activities; and identifies priorities for investigation of sources and control measures. This report was prepared for the Clean Estuary Partnership to support Technical Task 4.11, Basin Planning Assistance for Cu/Ni North of the Dumbarton Bridge.

    copper-toxicity, copper-general, copper-road, lower South San Francisco Bay, brake pads, Castro Valley, wear debris, model-air, model-water
  197.    Gillies, J. A.; Gertler, A. W.; Sagebiel, J. C.; Dippel, W. A. "On-Road Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Emissions in the Sepulveda Tunnel, Los Angeles, California," Environmental Science and Technology, 2001, Vol. 35, pp. 1054-1063.

    Total and speciated particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) emission factors from in-use vehicles were measured for a mixed light- (97.4% LD) and heavy-duty fleet (2.6% HD) in the Sepulveda Tunnel, Los Angeles, CA. Seventeen1-h test runs were performed between July 23,1996, and July 27, 1996. Emission factors were calculated from mass concentration measurements taken at the tunnel entrance and exit, the volume of airflow through the tunnel, and the number of vehicles passing through the 582 m long tunnel. For the mixed LD and HD fleet, PM2.5 emission factors in the Sepulveda Tunnel ranged from 0.016 (+/- 0.007) to 0.115 (+/- 0.019) g/vehicle·km traveled with an average of 0.052 (+/- 0.027) g/vehicle·km. PM10 emission factors ranged from 0.030 (+/-0.009) to 0.131 (+/-0.024) g/vehicle·km with an average of 0.069 (+/-0.030) g/vehicle·km. The PM2.5 emission factor was ~74% of the PM10 factor. Speciated emission rates and chemical profiles for use in receptor modeling were also developed. PM2.5 was dominated by organic carbon (OC) (31.0 +/- 19.5%) and elemental carbon (EC) (48.5 +/- 20.5%) that together account for 79% (+/-24%) of the total emissions. Crustal elements (Fe, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Mn) contribute ~7.8%, and the ions Cl-, NO3-, NH3+, SO42-, and K+ together constitute another 9.8%. In the PM10 size fraction the particulate emissions were also dominated by OC (31 +/-12%) and EC (35 +/- 13%). The third most prominent species was Fe (18.5 +/- 9.0%), which is greater than would be expected from purely geological sources. Other geological components (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Mn) accounted for an additional 12.6%. PM10 emission factors showed some dependence on vehicle speed, whereas PM2.5 did not. For test runs in which the average vehicle speed was 42.6 km/h a 1.7 times increase in PM10 emission factor was observed compared to those runs with an average vehicle speed of 72.6 km/h. Speciated emissions were similar. However, there is significantly greater mass attributable to geological material in the PM10, indicative of an increased contribution from resuspended road dust. The PM2.5 shows relatively good correlation with NOx emissions, which indicates that even at the low percent of HD vehicles, which emit significantly more NOx than LD vehicles, they may also have a significant impact on the PM2.5 levels.

    sediments-road, wear debris, air, particle size distribution